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Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 33, Issue 9, pp 2078–2097 | Cite as

Is There an Optimal Formulation and Delivery Strategy for Subunit Vaccines?

  • Sharan Bobbala
  • Sarah HookEmail author
Expert Review

Abstract

Modern vaccine design has moved away from attenuated or inactivated whole-pathogen vaccines to more pure and defined subunit vaccines. However subunit antigens have poor bioavailability and stability and lack immunogenicity. To overcome these issues subunit vaccines have to be administered in a suitable delivery system in combination with immune stimulants. Many different delivery systems have been developed and investigated each having different modes of action, for example increasing delivery and/or sustaining delivery of antigen to immune cells. In addition a number of different routes of immunization are possible and these can play a crucial role in determining the fate of an immune response. In this review the different strategies for the delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic subunit vaccines along with the impact of these on the immune responses generated are discussed.

KEY WORDS

hydrogels immunization implants nanoparticles subunit vaccines 

Abbreviations

AMVAD

Archaeal-lipid mucosal vaccine adjuvant and delivery

APCs

Antigen presenting cells

BALT

Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue

BGs

Bacterial ghosts

dDCs

Dermal dendritic cells

DPIs

Dry powder inhalers

GALT

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

HBsAg

Hepatitis B surface antigen

ID

Intradermal

IL

Intralymphatic

IM

Intramuscular

IP

Intraperitoneal

ISCOMs

Immune stimulating complexes

IV

Intravenous

LCs

Langerhans cells

M cells

Microfold cells

MALT

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

NALT

Nose-associated lymphoid tissue

NLRP3

Nod-like receptor protein 3

PLGA

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)

pMDIs

Pressurized metered dose inhalers

PP

Peyer’s patches

PRRs

Pathogen recognition receptors

SC

Subcutaneous

TRP

Toll-like receptor

VLPs

Virus like particles

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PharmacyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

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