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Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 33, Issue 10, pp 2373–2387 | Cite as

Nanoparticle-Based Medicines: A Review of FDA-Approved Materials and Clinical Trials to Date

  • Daniel Bobo
  • Kye J. Robinson
  • Jiaul Islam
  • Kristofer J. Thurecht
  • Simon R. CorrieEmail author
Expert Review

ABSTRACT

In this review we provide an up to date snapshot of nanomedicines either currently approved by the US FDA, or in the FDA clinical trials process. We define nanomedicines as therapeutic or imaging agents which comprise a nanoparticle in order to control the biodistribution, enhance the efficacy, or otherwise reduce toxicity of a drug or biologic. We identified 51 FDA-approved nanomedicines that met this definition and 77 products in clinical trials, with ~40% of trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov started in 2014 or 2015. While FDA approved materials are heavily weighted to polymeric, liposomal, and nanocrystal formulations, there is a trend towards the development of more complex materials comprising micelles, protein-based NPs, and also the emergence of a variety of inorganic and metallic particles in clinical trials. We then provide an overview of the different material categories represented in our search, highlighting nanomedicines that have either been recently approved, or are already in clinical trials. We conclude with some comments on future perspectives for nanomedicines, which we expect to include more actively-targeted materials, multi-functional materials (“theranostics”) and more complicated materials that blur the boundaries of traditional material categories. A key challenge for researchers, industry, and regulators is how to classify new materials and what additional testing (e.g. safety and toxicity) is required before products become available.

KEY WORDS

clinical trials FDA nanomedicine nanoparticles nanopharmaceuticals nanotherpeutics 

ABBREVIATIONS

CHOP

Chemotherapy containing cyclophosmphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone

CKD

Chronic Kidney Disease

CMC

Critical micelle concentration

cRGDY

Cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid

EPR

Enhanced permeability and retention

IDE

Investigational device exemption

IND

Investigational New Drug

MTAs

Molecularly targeted agents

NABs

Albumin bound nanoparticles

NCL

Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

NDA

New Drug Application

NIR

Near-infrared

NP

Nanoparticle

PEG

Poly (ethylene glycol)

PLGA

Polyactide-co-glycolic acid

PPX

Poliglumex

PSMA

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

PTCL

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLOSURES

We acknowledge funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1099231 KJT), the Australian Research Council (FT110100284, DP140100951 (KJT), DE130100800 (SRC)), National Breast Cancer Foundation (NC-14-037), and Centre of Excellence in Convergent BioNano Science and Technology (CE140100036 (SRC, KJT)) and thank the Ochsner Clinical School of New Orleans, LA (DPB).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Bobo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Kye J. Robinson
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jiaul Islam
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Kristofer J. Thurecht
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Simon R. Corrie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced ImagingUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Institute for Bioengineering and NanotechnologyUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  3. 3.School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  4. 4.ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and TechnologyQueensland nodeSt LuciaAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Chemical EngineeringMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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