Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 1576–1586 | Cite as

Skin Absorption of Anions: Part Two. Skin Absorption of Halide Ions

  • Raphaël Paweloszek
  • Stéphanie Briançon
  • Yves Chevalier
  • Nicole Gilon-Delepine
  • Jocelyne Pelletier
  • Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger
Research Paper

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to sort skin penetration of anions with respect to their properties and to assess their mechanisms of penetration.

Methods

Aqueous solutions of halides at two concentrations were prepared and quantitative penetration studies were carried out for 24 h using Franz diffusion cells. The iodide permeation was also measured after blocking of anion channels and transporters to investigate the role of this specific transport.

Results

Absorption of halide ions into skin revealed large differences of transport between these anions according to the Hofmeister series. Increasing steady-state fluxes and lag times in the order F < Cl < Br < I were observed in permeation experiments. The steady-state fluxes were proportional to the concentration for each halide ion. Longer lag times for iodide or bromide ions were explained by the ability of such sticky chaotropic anions to interact with apolar lipids especially in the stratum corneum. Inhibiting ion exchangers and channels decreased the flux of iodide ions by 75%, showing the high contribution of the facilitated transport over the passive pathway.

Conclusion

Ions transport had contributions coming from passive diffusion through the skin layers and transport mediated by ion channels and binding to ion transporters.

KEY WORDS

chloride ion channels halide ions Hofmeister series skin absorption 

ABBREVIATIONS

AE

Anion exchanger

CaCC

Ca2+-activated Cl channels

CFTR

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator

ClC

Chloride Channel

D

Dermis

D

Diffusion coefficient

DF

Donor fluid

DIDS

4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

IAA-94

Indanyloxyacetic acid

IC

Ion chromatography

ICP-OES

Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

Jss

Steady-state flux

Km

Partition coefficient

Kp

Permeability coefficient

NCC

Sodium-chloride symporter (also known as Na+-Cl cotransporter)

NIS

Sodium-iodide symporter

NKCC

Sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter

RF

Receptor fluid

SC

Stratum corneum

VE

Viable epidermis

VRAC

Volume regulated anion channels

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raphaël Paweloszek
    • 1
  • Stéphanie Briançon
    • 1
  • Yves Chevalier
    • 1
  • Nicole Gilon-Delepine
    • 2
  • Jocelyne Pelletier
    • 1
  • Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5007, LAGEP - Laboratoire de Dermopharmacie et Cosmétologie, Faculté de Pharmacie de LyonVilleurbanneFrance
  2. 2.Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5280, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA)VilleurbanneFrance

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