Nanocarriers to Enhance the Accumulation of Vitamin K1 into the Skin
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Vitamin K1 (VK1) is a molecule abundant in some species of leaf vegetables with beneficial effects in humans following administration on the skin. This work investigates the possibility to use formulations based on lipid vesicles, namely liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes, suitable to be administered on the skin by nebulization and alternative to fat semisolid preparations present on the market.
Lipid vesicles encapsulating VK1 were prepared and characterized. Ex-vivo experiments on Franz cells were carried out to study the VK1 accumulation/permeation in/through the skin. Vesicles interaction with the skin was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy.
All developed carriers were stable following long-term storage and were not altered following nebulization. In ex-vivo experiments, vesicles with the highest deformability index, namely transfersomes and ethosomes, led to an enhanced VK1 accumulation/permeation into/through the skin. Interestingly, the nebulization of the vesicles led to a further increase of VK1 accumulation into the skin.
In conclusion, to achieve a local effect of VK1 on the skin, the topical nebulization of VK1-containing transfersomes could offer a good compromise between a high VK1 penetration into the skin and a limited permeation through it.
KEY WORDSFranz cells lipid-vesicles nebulization skin vitamin K1
Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
- CH3CH2OH or EtOH
Confocal laser scanning microscopy
Epidermal growth factor receptor
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND DISCLOSURES
The PhD course of Virginia Campani was supported with a grant from Regione Campania - research project “Dottorati di Ricerca in Azienda – POR – Campania FSE 2007-2013”.
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