Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp 2003–2014 | Cite as

Exosome Delivered Anticancer Drugs Across the Blood-Brain Barrier for Brain Cancer Therapy in Danio Rerio

  • Tianzhi Yang
  • Paige Martin
  • Brittany Fogarty
  • Alison Brown
  • Kayla Schurman
  • Roger Phipps
  • Viravuth P. Yin
  • Paul Lockman
  • Shuhua BaiEmail author
Research Paper



The blood–brain barrier (BBB) essentially restricts therapeutic drugs from entering into the brain. This study tests the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell derived exosomes can deliver anticancer drug across the BBB for the treatment of brain cancer in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model.

Materials and Methods

Four types of exosomes were isolated from brain cell culture media and characterized by particle size, morphology, total protein, and transmembrane protein markers. Transport mechanism, cell uptake, and cytotoxicity of optimized exosome delivery system were tested. Brain distribution of exosome delivered anticancer drugs was evaluated using transgenic zebrafish TG (fli1: GFP) embryos and efficacies of optimized formations were examined in a xenotransplanted zebrafish model of brain cancer model.


Four exosomes in 30–100 diameters showed different morphologies and exosomes derived from brain endothelial cells expressed more CD63 tetraspanins transmembrane proteins. Optimized exosomes increased the uptake of fluorescent marker via receptor mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in cancer cells. Images of the zebrafish showed exosome delivered anticancer drugs crossed the BBB and entered into the brain. In the brain cancer model, exosome delivered anticancer drugs significantly decreased fluorescent intensity of xenotransplanted cancer cells and tumor growth marker.


Brain endothelial cell derived exosomes could be potentially used as a carrier for brain delivery of anticancer drug for the treatment of brain cancer.


blood–brain barrier brain cancer drug delivery exosome zebrafish 



Research reported in this project was supported by the Maine Cancer Foundation Pilot Research Grant 2013, the Institutional Development Award (IDeA) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM103423, and the Salisbury Cove Research Fund. The authors thank Drs. Michelle Goody and Carol Kim at the University of Maine for kind help on the zebrafish study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tianzhi Yang
    • 1
  • Paige Martin
    • 1
  • Brittany Fogarty
    • 1
  • Alison Brown
    • 1
  • Kayla Schurman
    • 1
  • Roger Phipps
    • 1
  • Viravuth P. Yin
    • 2
  • Paul Lockman
    • 3
  • Shuhua Bai
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of PharmacyHusson UniversityBangorUSA
  2. 2.Davis Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine,Mount Desert Island Biological LaboratorySalisbury CoveUSA
  3. 3.Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of PharmacyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

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