Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 1165–1179

Magnetic Nanoparticles in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diagnostics

Expert Review

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-012-0711-y

Cite this article as:
Rümenapp, C., Gleich, B. & Haase, A. Pharm Res (2012) 29: 1165. doi:10.1007/s11095-012-0711-y

ABSTRACT

Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

KEY WORDS

contrast agent diagnostic magnetic resonance magnetic nanoparticles magnetic resonance imaging spin relaxation 

ABBREVIATIONS

DMR

diagnostic magnetic resonance

DOTA

1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid

DPDP

di-pyridoxyl- di-phosphate

DTPA

diethylene-triamine –pentaacetic acid

HER2

human epidermal growth factor receptor 2

MNP

magnetic nanoparticle

MPI

magnetic particle imaging

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

PEG

poly-ethylene-glycol

PEI

poly-ethylen-imine

PET

positron emission tomography

SPIO

superparamagnetic iron oxide

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Rümenapp
    • 1
  • Bernhard Gleich
    • 1
  • Axel Haase
    • 1
  1. 1.Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik (IMETUM)Technische Universität MünchenGarchingGermany

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