Gold Nanoparticle Penetration and Reduced Metabolism in Human Skin by Toluene
To measure penetration and metabolic effects of ion-stabilized, polar, 15 nm gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution (AuNP-Aq) and sterically stabilized, non-polar, 6 nm gold nanoparticles in toluene (AuNP-TOL) on excised human skin.
Gold nanoparticles were characterized with dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Skin penetration studies were done on frozen or fresh excised skin using static Franz diffusion cells. Viable treated skin was assessed by dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), multiphoton tomography (MPT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and TEM.
Dermoscopy and RCM showed large aggregates in the furrows of AuNP-Aq-treated skin. Treatment of thawed and viable skin only showed enhanced permeability to nanoparticles in the AuNP-TOL group with MPT and FLIM imaging to stratum spinosum of epidermis. TEM analysis revealed gold nanoparticles within AuNP-treated stratum corneum. FLIM analysis of NAD(P)H showed a significant decrease in total NAD(P)H in all toluene-treated groups.
Gold nanoparticles, 15 nm, in aqueous solution aggregated on the skin surface. Toluene treatment eliminated skin metabolism; skin treated with toluene/gold nanoparticles (6 nm) for 24 h, but not at 4 h, showed increased nanoparticle permeability. These results are of value to nanotoxicology.
KEY WORDSconfocal reflectance microscopy fluorescence lifetime multiphoton microscopy nanoparticle skin
analysis of variance
gold nanoparticle in aqueous solution
gold nanoparticle in toluene
band pass filter
energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy
fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
- HFT KP
dichroic low pass filter
inductively coupled plasma
multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
reflectance confocal microscopy
transmission electron microscopy
trans-epidermal water loss
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