Gold Nanoparticle Penetration and Reduced Metabolism in Human Skin by Toluene
- 786 Downloads
To measure penetration and metabolic effects of ion-stabilized, polar, 15 nm gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution (AuNP-Aq) and sterically stabilized, non-polar, 6 nm gold nanoparticles in toluene (AuNP-TOL) on excised human skin.
Gold nanoparticles were characterized with dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Skin penetration studies were done on frozen or fresh excised skin using static Franz diffusion cells. Viable treated skin was assessed by dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), multiphoton tomography (MPT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and TEM.
Dermoscopy and RCM showed large aggregates in the furrows of AuNP-Aq-treated skin. Treatment of thawed and viable skin only showed enhanced permeability to nanoparticles in the AuNP-TOL group with MPT and FLIM imaging to stratum spinosum of epidermis. TEM analysis revealed gold nanoparticles within AuNP-treated stratum corneum. FLIM analysis of NAD(P)H showed a significant decrease in total NAD(P)H in all toluene-treated groups.
Gold nanoparticles, 15 nm, in aqueous solution aggregated on the skin surface. Toluene treatment eliminated skin metabolism; skin treated with toluene/gold nanoparticles (6 nm) for 24 h, but not at 4 h, showed increased nanoparticle permeability. These results are of value to nanotoxicology.
KEY WORDSconfocal reflectance microscopy fluorescence lifetime multiphoton microscopy nanoparticle skin
analysis of variance
gold nanoparticle in aqueous solution
gold nanoparticle in toluene
band pass filter
energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy
fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
- HFT KP
dichroic low pass filter
inductively coupled plasma
multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
reflectance confocal microscopy
transmission electron microscopy
trans-epidermal water loss
- 4.On regulatory aspects of nanomaterials. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/commithttp://www.schneiderchildrenshospital.org/peds_html_fixed/peds/derm/burns.htmtees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_123.pdf (accessed 15/09/2010).
- 6.Monteiro-Riviere NA, Tran CL. Nanotoxicology: characterization, dosing and health effects. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2007.Google Scholar
- 7.Prow TW, Grice JE, Lin LL, Faye R, Butler M, Becker W, et al. Nanoparticles and microparticles for skin drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011.Google Scholar
- 19.Hoover MD, Stefaniak AB, Day GA, Geraci CL. Exposure assessment considerations for nanoparticles in the workplace. In: Monteiro-Riviereand NA, Tran CL, editors. Nanotoxicology: characterization, dosing and health effects. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2007. p. 71–83.Google Scholar
- 29.Larese Filon F, Crosera M, Adami G, Bovenzi M, Rossi F, Maina G. Human skin penetration of gold nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin. Nanotoxicology. 2011. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2010.551428.
- 30.Turkevich J, Stevenson PC, Hillier J. A study of the nucleation and growth processes in the synthesis of colloidal gold. discuss, Faraday Soc. 1951;55–57.Google Scholar
- 33.Lin LL, Grice JE, Butler MK, Zvyagin AV, Becker W, Robertson TA, et al. Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting for Simultaneous Monitoring of Zinz Oxide Nanoparticles and NAD(P)H in Intact and Barrier Disrupted Volunteer Skin. Pharm Res. 2011. doi: 10.1007/s11095-011-0515-5.
- 36.Sanchez WY, Prow TW, Sanchez WH, Grice JE, Roberts MS. Analysis of the metabolic deterioration of ex vivo skin from ischemic necrosis through the imaging of intracellular NAD(P)H by multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2010;15:046008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Prow TW, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Inman AO, Grice JE, Chen X, Zhao X, et al. Quantum dot penetration into viable human skin. Nanotoxicology. 2011.Google Scholar
- 43.Westerand RC, Maibach HI. Percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1993;21:45–60.Google Scholar
- 44.Wester RC, Melendres J, Sedik L, Maibach H, Riviere JE. Percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid, theophylline, 2, 4-dimethylamine, diethyl hexyl phthalic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap compared to man in vivo. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998;151:159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar