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Pharmaceutical Research

, 28:2931 | Cite as

Gold Nanoparticle Penetration and Reduced Metabolism in Human Skin by Toluene

  • Hagar I. Labouta
  • David C. Liu
  • Lynlee L. Lin
  • Margaret K. Butler
  • Jeffrey E. Grice
  • Anthony P. Raphael
  • Tobias Kraus
  • Labiba K. El-Khordagui
  • H. Peter Soyer
  • Michael S. Roberts
  • Marc Schneider
  • Tarl W. Prow
Research Paper

ABSTRACT

Purpose

To measure penetration and metabolic effects of ion-stabilized, polar, 15 nm gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution (AuNP-Aq) and sterically stabilized, non-polar, 6 nm gold nanoparticles in toluene (AuNP-TOL) on excised human skin.

Methods

Gold nanoparticles were characterized with dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Skin penetration studies were done on frozen or fresh excised skin using static Franz diffusion cells. Viable treated skin was assessed by dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), multiphoton tomography (MPT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and TEM.

Results

Dermoscopy and RCM showed large aggregates in the furrows of AuNP-Aq-treated skin. Treatment of thawed and viable skin only showed enhanced permeability to nanoparticles in the AuNP-TOL group with MPT and FLIM imaging to stratum spinosum of epidermis. TEM analysis revealed gold nanoparticles within AuNP-treated stratum corneum. FLIM analysis of NAD(P)H showed a significant decrease in total NAD(P)H in all toluene-treated groups.

Conclusions

Gold nanoparticles, 15 nm, in aqueous solution aggregated on the skin surface. Toluene treatment eliminated skin metabolism; skin treated with toluene/gold nanoparticles (6 nm) for 24 h, but not at 4 h, showed increased nanoparticle permeability. These results are of value to nanotoxicology.

KEY WORDS

confocal reflectance microscopy fluorescence lifetime multiphoton microscopy nanoparticle skin 

ABBREVIATIONS

ANOVA

analysis of variance

AuNP

gold nanoparticle

AuNP-Aq

gold nanoparticle in aqueous solution

AuNP-TOL

gold nanoparticle in toluene

BP

band pass filter

EDXS

energy-dispersed X-ray spectroscopy

FLIM

fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

HFT KP

dichroic low pass filter

ICP

inductively coupled plasma

MPT

multiphoton tomography

MPT-FLIM

multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

NA

numerical aperture

NAD(P)H

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

RCM

reflectance confocal microscopy

SB

stratum basale

SC

stratum corneum

SG

stratum granulosum

SS

stratum spinosum

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

TEWL

trans-epidermal water loss

VE

viable epidermis

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hagar I. Labouta
    • 1
    • 2
  • David C. Liu
    • 3
  • Lynlee L. Lin
    • 3
    • 4
  • Margaret K. Butler
    • 5
    • 6
  • Jeffrey E. Grice
    • 3
  • Anthony P. Raphael
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Tobias Kraus
    • 7
  • Labiba K. El-Khordagui
    • 2
  • H. Peter Soyer
    • 4
  • Michael S. Roberts
    • 3
    • 8
  • Marc Schneider
    • 1
  • Tarl W. Prow
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical NanotechnologySaarland UniversitySaarbrückenGermany
  2. 2.Department of PharmaceuticsAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  3. 3.Therapeutics Research UnitThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Dermatology Research Centre, School of MedicineThe University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.Australian Institute for Bioengineering and NanotechnologyThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  6. 6.Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Research FacilityThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  7. 7.Structure Formation GroupINM InstituteSaarbrückenGermany
  8. 8.School of Pharmacy and Medical ScienceThe University of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

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