Pharmaceutical Research

, 28:2920

Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting For Simultaneous Monitoring Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And NAD(P)H In Intact And Barrier-Disrupted Volunteer Skin

  • Lynlee L. Lin
  • Jeffrey E. Grice
  • Margaret K. Butler
  • Andrei V. Zvyagin
  • Wolfgang Becker
  • Thomas A. Robertson
  • H. Peter Soyer
  • Michael S. Roberts
  • Tarl W. Prow
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-011-0515-5

Cite this article as:
Lin, L.L., Grice, J.E., Butler, M.K. et al. Pharm Res (2011) 28: 2920. doi:10.1007/s11095-011-0515-5

ABSTRACT

Purpose

There is a lack of relevant, non-animal alternatives for assessing exposure and toxicity of nanoparticle-containing cosmetics, e.g. sunscreens. Our goal was to evaluate timecorrelated single photon counting (TCSPC) for simultaneous monitoring of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) and the metabolic state of volunteer skin.

Methods

We separated the fluorescence lifetime signatures of endogenous fluorophore signals (i.e. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NAD(P)H and keratin) and the ZnO-NP signal using advanced TCSPC to simultaneously determine ZnO-NP penetration profiles and NAD(P)H changes in subjects with altered barrier function, including tape-stripped skin and in psoriasis or atopic dermatitis lesions.

Results

We detected no ZnO-NP penetration into viable human skin in any group. ZnO-NP signal was significantly increased (p < 0.01) on the surface of tape-stripped and lesional skin after 4 and 2 h of treatment, respectively. Free NAD(P)H signal significantly increased in tape-stripped viable epidermis treated for 4 h of ZnO-NP compared to vehicle control. No significant NAD(P)H changes were noted in the lesional study.

Conclusion

TCSPC techniques enabled simultaneous, real-time quantification of ZnO-NP concentration and NAD(P)H via non-invasive imaging in the stratum corneum and viable epidermis of volunteers.

KEY WORDS

human skin metabolism multiphoton microscopy sunscreen zinc oxide nanoparticle 

ABBREVIATIONS

AAS

atomic absorption spectroscopy

AU

arbitrary unit

CCT

caprylic/capric triglycerides

FLIM

fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

ICP-OES

inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy

IRF

instrument response function

KDP

potassium di-hydrogen phosphate

MEP

multiphoton-excited photoluminescence

MPT

multiphoton tomography

MPT-FLIM

multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

NAD(P)H

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

PBS

phosphate-buffered saline

SHG

second harmonic generation

TCSPC

time-correlated single photon counting

TEM

transmission electron microscope

TEWL

transepidermal Water Loss

Ti:Sa

titanium:sapphire

ZnO-NP

zinc oxide nanoparticles

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynlee L. Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeffrey E. Grice
    • 1
  • Margaret K. Butler
    • 3
  • Andrei V. Zvyagin
    • 4
    • 5
  • Wolfgang Becker
    • 6
  • Thomas A. Robertson
    • 7
  • H. Peter Soyer
    • 2
  • Michael S. Roberts
    • 1
    • 7
  • Tarl W. Prow
    • 1
    • 2
    • 8
  1. 1.Therapeutics Research Centre, School of Medicine Princess Alexandra HospitalUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Dermatology Research Centre, School of Medicine Princess Alexandra HospitalUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Institute for Bioengineering & NanotechnologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Physics, Centre of MQ PhotonicsMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  5. 5.Centre for Biophotonics and Laser Science School of Physical SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  6. 6.Becker & Hickl GmbHBerlinGermany
  7. 7.Therapeutics Research Centre School of Pharmacy & Biomedical SciencesUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  8. 8.Therapeutics Research & Dermatology Research Centres School of Medicine, Princess Alexandra HospitalUniversity of QueenslandWoolloongabbaAustralia

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