Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 2034–2044 | Cite as

The Role of Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Oxazaphosphorine-Mediated Induction of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Human Hepatocytes

  • Duan Wang
  • Linhao Li
  • Jennifer Fuhrman
  • Stephen Ferguson
  • Hongbing Wang
Research Paper



To investigate the roles of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in cyclophosphamide (CPA)- and ifosfamide (IFO)-mediated induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME).


Induction of DMEs was evaluated using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis in human primary hepatocyte (HPH) cultures. Activation of CAR, pregnane X receptor (PXR), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor by CPA and IFO was assessed in cell-based reporter assays in HepG2 cells and/or nuclear translocation assays in HPHs.


CYP2B6 reporter activity was significantly enhanced by CPA and IFO in HepG2 cells co-transfected with CYP2B6 reporter plasmid and a chemical-responsive human CAR variant (CAR1 + A) construct. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis in HPHs showed that both CPA and IFO induced the expressions of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Notably, treatment of HPHs with CPA but not IFO resulted in significant nuclear accumulation of CAR, which represents the initial step of CAR activation. Further studies in HPHs demonstrated that selective inhibition of PXR by sulforaphane preferentially repressed IFO- over CPA-mediated induction of CYP2B6.


These results provide novel insights into the differential roles of CAR in the regulation of CPA- and IFO-induced DME expression and potential drug-drug interactions.


CAR cyclophosphamide CYP2B6 ifosfamide induction 





adenovirus expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-tagged human CAR


aryl hydrocarbon receptor


constitutive androstane receptor


6-(4-chlorophenyl) imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]- thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl) oxime




cytochrome P450


dimethyl sulfoxide


glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


human primary hepatocytes








pregnane X receptor




reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction




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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duan Wang
    • 1
  • Linhao Li
    • 1
  • Jennifer Fuhrman
    • 2
  • Stephen Ferguson
    • 3
  • Hongbing Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Maryland School of PharmacyBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Life Technologies CorporationDurhamUSA

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