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Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 364–373 | Cite as

Influence of Temperature on Solvent-Mediated Anhydrate-to-Hydrate Transformation Kinetics

  • Haiyan Qu
  • Tommy Munk
  • Claus Cornett
  • Jian X. Wu
  • Johan P. Bøtker
  • Lars P. Christensen
  • Jukka Rantanen
  • Fang Tian
Research Paper

ABSTRACT

Purpose

To achieve an in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanism of the acceleration or deceleration effect of temperature on solvent-mediated anhydrate-to-hydrate phase transformation.

Methods

The effect of temperature on the phase transformation rate and onset time of two model compounds was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The thermodynamic driving force of the phase transformation (e.g. supersaturation) at different temperatures was determined by measuring the solubility of the anhydrate and the hydrate.

Results

Both acceleration and deceleration effects of temperature on the phase transformation were observed. The mechanism of these temperature effects was studied by exploring the influence of temperature on supersaturation level and crystallization kinetics. Increasing temperature usually leads to accelerated phase transformation kinetics, but it simultaneously decreases supersaturation, which has the opposite effect on the kinetics of the phase transformation. The overall effect of temperature on the phase transformation is therefore determined by the combined effects of supersaturation and temperature on the nucleation and crystal growth kinetics of the hydrate.

Conclusions

By differentiating and comparing the effects of temperature and supersaturation on the anhydrate-to-hydrate phase transformation, a deeper understanding of the underlying principle of the acceleration and deceleration effects of temperature on the phase transformation has been achieved.

KEY WORDS

anhydrate-to-hydrate crystallization phase transformation supersaturation 

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Financial support from the Danish Council for Independent Research, Technology and Production Sciences (Project No. 274-09-0028) is acknowledged. Lundbeckfonden (Denmark, project No. 479/06) is acknowledged for the financial support of XRPD instrument.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haiyan Qu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tommy Munk
    • 1
  • Claus Cornett
    • 1
  • Jian X. Wu
    • 1
  • Johan P. Bøtker
    • 1
  • Lars P. Christensen
    • 2
  • Jukka Rantanen
    • 1
  • Fang Tian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical ChemistryFaculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of CopenhagenCopenhagen ØDenmark
  2. 2.Institute of Chemical Engineering Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense MDenmark

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