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Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 200–214 | Cite as

Cancer Immunotherapy and Nanomedicine

  • Wei-Yun Sheng
  • Leaf HuangEmail author
Expert Review

ABSTRACT

The immune system has the ability to recognize and kill pre-cancer and cancer cells. However, with the immune system’s surveillance, the survival tumor cells learn how to escape the immune system after immunoselection. Cancer immunotherapy develops strategies to overcome these problems. Nanomedicine applications in cancer immunotherapy include the nanodiagnostics and nanobiopharmaceuticals. In cancer nanodiagnostics, it looks for specific “molecular signatures” in cancer cells or their microenvironment by using genomics and proteomics. Nanobiopharmaceuticals is the field that studies nanotechnology-based therapeutic agents and drug carriers. DNA, RNA, peptides, proteins and small molecules can all be used as cancer therapies when formulated in nanocarriers. Currently, cancer vaccines are applied in treatments with existing cancer or to prevent the development of cancer in certain high risk individuals. Most of the non-specific immune activation agents include adjuvants which enhance immunogenicity and accelerate and prolong the response of cancer vaccines. The carriers of vaccines, such as viruses and nanoparticles, have also been in clinical studies for many years. This review will discuss the relationships between the tumor and the immune system, and also will include topics covering the strategies used in eliminating tumors by using nanomedicine.

KEY WORDS

adjuvant cancer immunotherapy cancer vaccine nano tumor immunoediting 

ABBREVIATIONS

ADCC

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

APC

antigen-presenting cell

bAb

bispecific antibody

CIK

cytokine-induced killer cells

CT

Chlorella toxin

CTL

cytotoxicity T-lymphocytes

CTLA-4

cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4

DC

dendritic cells

DLN

draining lymph node

DOTAP

N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methyl-sulfate

EPR

enhanced permeability and retention effects

GM-CSF

granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

ICAM-1

intercellular adhesion molecule-1

iDC

immature DC

IFA

incomplete Freud’s adjuvant

IFN

interferon

IL

interleukin

LFA-1

lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1

LPD

lipid-polycation-DNA

LT

labile enterotoxin

mDC

mature dendritic cells

MDSC

myeloid-derived suppressor cell

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

NK-cell

natural killer cell

NP

nanoparticle

ODN

oligodeoxynucleotide

PD-1

programmed death-1

PEG

ethylene glycol

PLGA

poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

ROS

reactive oxygen species

Tc-cell

cytolytic T-cell

TCR

T-cell receptor

TGF-β

transforming growth factor β

Th-cell

helper T-cell

TLR

toll-like receptor

TNFα

tumor necrosis factor α

TRAIL

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

Treg-cell

regulatory T-lymphocyte

TT

Tetanus toxoid

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

Notes

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The original work in this lab has been supported by NIH grant CA129421, and we would like to thank Ethan Ekkens, who provided additional advice for this article.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of PharmacyUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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