St. John’s Wort Constituents Modulate P-glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier
The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term signaling effects of St. John’s Wort (SJW) extract and selected SJW constituents on the blood-brain barrier transporter P-glycoprotein and to describe the role of PKC in the signaling.
Cultured porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) and freshly isolated brain capillaries from pig were used as in vitro/ex vivo blood-brain barrier model. SJW modulation of P-glycoprotein function was studied in PBCEC using a calcein-AM uptake assay and in isolated pig brain capillaries using the fluorescent cyclosporine A derivative NBD-CSA and confocal microscopy.
SJW extract and the constituents hyperforin, hypericin, and quercetin decreased P-glycoprotein transport activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. SJW extract and hyperforin directly inhibited P-glycoprotein activity, whereas hypericin and quercetin modulated transporter function through a mechanism involving protein kinase C. Quercetin at high concentrations decreased P-glycoprotein transport activity, but increased transporter function at low concentrations. This increase in P-glycoprotein activity was likely due to trafficking and membrane insertion of vesicles containing transporter protein.
Our findings provide new insights into the short-term interaction of SJW with P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. They are of potential relevance given the wide use of SJW as OTC medication and the importance P-glycoprotein has for CNS therapy.
KEY WORDSblood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein protein kinase C regulation St. John’s wort
Porcine brain capillary endothelial cells
Protein kinase C
Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
Pregnane X receptor
St. John’s wort
This study was supported by a Schlieben-Lange-Grant from the Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts Baden-Württemberg and the European Social Fund (to M.O.) and by a German Research Foundation grant GF1211/9-1 (to G.F.).
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
- 25.Bauer B, Hartz AM, Fricker G, Miller DS. Modulation of p-glycoprotein transport function at the blood-brain barrier. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:118–27.Google Scholar
- 40.Schulz HU, Schurer M, Bassler D, Weiser D. Investigation of the bioavailability of hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin and the flavonoids quercetin and isorhamnetin following single and multiple oral dosing of a hypericum extract containing tablet. Arzneimittelforschung 2005;55:15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar