Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 211–223

Mucosal Vaccines: Recent Progress in Understanding the Natural Barriers

  • Olga Borges
  • Filipa Lebre
  • Dulce Bento
  • Gerrit Borchard
  • Hans E. Junginger
Expert Review

Abstract

It has long been known that protection against pathogens invading the organism via mucosal surfaces correlates better with the presence of specific antibodies in local secretions than with serum antibodies. The most effective way to induce mucosal immunity is to administer antigens directly to the mucosal surface. The development of vaccines for mucosal application requires antigen delivery systems and immunopotentiators that efficiently facilitate the presentation of the antigen to the mucosal immune system. This review provides an overview of the events within mucosal tissues that lead to protective mucosal immune responses. The understanding of those biological mechanisms, together with knowledge of the technology of vaccines and adjuvants, provides guidance on important technical aspects of mucosal vaccine design. Not being exhaustive, this review also provides information related to modern adjuvants, including polymeric delivery systems and immunopotentiators.

Key Words

adjuvants immunoglobulin A mucosal immune system mucosal vaccines 

Abbreviations

APCs

antigen presenting cells

BALT

bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue

CCL25

chemokine ligand 25

CCL28

chemokine ligand 28

CCR9

chemokine receptor 9

CCR10

chemokine receptor 10

CMIS

common mucosal Immune system

CTL

cytotoxic T lymphocyte

DCs

dendritic cells

FAE

follicle-associated epithelium

GALT

gut-associated lymphoid tissue

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

IELs

intraepithelial lymphocytes

MADCAM1

mucosal adressin cell-adhesion molecule1

MALT

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues

M cells

microfold epithelial cells

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MLN

mesenteric lymphoid nodes

PAMPs

pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PLG

polylactide-co-glycolide

sIgA

secretory immunoglobulin A

TECK

thymus-expressed chemokine

TGTß

transforming grown factor

TH2

T helper 2 cells

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

VCAM1

vascular cell adhesion molecule 1

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Borges
    • 1
  • Filipa Lebre
    • 1
  • Dulce Bento
    • 1
  • Gerrit Borchard
    • 2
  • Hans E. Junginger
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology & Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Geneva-LausanneUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesNaresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand

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