Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1412–1419

Mechanistic Analysis of Chemical Permeation Enhancers for Oral Drug Delivery

Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-008-9542-2

Cite this article as:
Whitehead, K. & Mitragotri, S. Pharm Res (2008) 25: 1412. doi:10.1007/s11095-008-9542-2

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, the oral route cannot be employed for the delivery of macromolecular drugs such as proteins and peptides due, in large part, to limited transport across the epithelial membrane. This particular challenge can potentially be addressed through the use of chemical permeation enhancers, which affect transcellular and/or paracellular transport routes. Although certain permeation enhancers have been proposed for use in oral delivery, potential for application is often unclear when the route of enhancer action is unknown.

Methods

A combination of theory and experiments was developed for determining mechanism of enhancer action. The effect of 51 enhancers on Caco-2 cells was studied using TEER, MTT, and LDH assays.

Results

The mechanistic details of intestinal permeability enhancement were uncovered for a broad set of enhancers in vitro. Understanding gained from enhancer mechanisms enabled the deduction of structure–function relationships for hydrophilic and hydrophobic permeation enhancers as well as the identification of a transcellular enhancer, 0.01% (w/v) palmityldimethyl ammonio propane sulfonate, which enabled the non-cytotoxic intracellular delivery of a model drug.

Conclusions

The results presented here emphasize the importance of understanding enhancer mechanism and uncover a zwitterionic surfactant capable of safely and effectively achieving intraepithelial drug delivery in vitro.

Key words

Caco-2 mechanism oral drug delivery permeation enhancer transcellular 

Notation

EP

Enhancement potential

K

Mechanistic parameter

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

Log P

Water-octanol partion coefficient

LP

LDH potential

MTT

Methyl thiazole tetrazolium

PPS

Palmityldimethyl ammonio propane sulfonate

TEER

Transepithelial electrical resistance

TP

Toxicity potential

Supplementary material

11095_2008_9542_MOESM1_ESM.doc (306 kb)
Supplementary Material(DOC 360 KB)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations