Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 680–688 | Cite as

Analysis of in Vitro Skin Permeation of 22-Oxacalcitriol Having a Complicated Metabolic Pathway

  • Koji Yamaguchi
  • Tetsuya Mitsui
  • Toshinori Yamamoto
  • Rie Shiokawa
  • Yuko Nomiyama
  • Norihisa Ohishi
  • Yoshinori Aso
  • Kenji Sugibayashi
Research Paper


The purpose of this study is to analyze simultaneous skin permeation and metabolism of 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT) having several metabolites in skin by observing skin permeation of only unchanged OCT through excised rat skin.


A diffusion model including metabolic processes was employed to express simultaneous skin permeation and metabolism of OCT. In vitro permeation experiments of OCT from Oxarol® ointment through full-thickness and stripped rat skin were carried out using Franz-type diffusion cells. Time courses of unchanged OCT amounts in ointment, skin, and receptor fluid were determined and fitted to diffusion equations to obtain permeation parameters and a metabolic rate.


Fitting curves of the skin permeation profile obtained by the model were sufficiently close to observed data of unchanged OCT amounts in ointment, skin, and receptor fluid. The following parameters were obtained: metabolic rate of 1.37 × 10−1 h−1, and diffusion constants of OCT in stratum corneum (SC) (DSC) and viable epidermis and dermis (VED) (DVED) of 1.50 × 10−7 and 2.96 × 10−4 cm2/h, respectively. The partition coefficient of OCT for SC/ointment (KSC/D) was 7 times greater than that of VED/ointment (KVED/D).


The present analysis made it possible to calculate skin permeation parameters (partitioning, diffusivity, and metabolic rate) of OCT without requiring metabolic information, e.g., quantification of metabolites or identification of metabolic pathways. This would be widely applicable for drugs that are not suitable for conventional methods due to complicated metabolic pathways.

Key Words

diffusion model rat skin skin metabolism skin permeation 22-oxacalcitriol 



We thank Ms. Frances Ford (Chugai Pharmaceutical) for her useful advice in the preparation and language editing of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koji Yamaguchi
    • 1
  • Tetsuya Mitsui
    • 1
  • Toshinori Yamamoto
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rie Shiokawa
    • 1
  • Yuko Nomiyama
    • 1
  • Norihisa Ohishi
    • 1
  • Yoshinori Aso
    • 1
  • Kenji Sugibayashi
    • 2
  1. 1.Fuji Gotemba Research LaboratoriesChugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.GotembaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesJosai UniversitySakadoJapan
  3. 3.Worldwide Safety Sciences, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Nagoya LaboratoriesPfizer Inc.AichiJapan

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