Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 2079–2090 | Cite as

Self-Assembled Biodegradable Nanoparticles Developed by Direct Dialysis for the Delivery of Paclitaxel

  • Jingwei Xie
  • Chi-Hwa WangEmail author
Research Paper


The main objective of this study was to obtain self-assembled biodegradable nanoparticles by a direct dialysis method for the delivery of anticancer drug. The in vitro cellular particle uptake and cytotoxicity to C6 glioma cell line were investigated.


Self-assembled anticancer drugs—paclitaxel-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles—were achieved by direct dialysis. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles were characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profile were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Particle cellular uptake was studied using confocal microscopy, microplate reader, and flow cytometry. In addition, the cytotoxicity of this drug delivery system was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on C6 glioma cell line to predict the possible dose response of paclitaxel-loaded PLGA and PLA nanoparticles.


PLGA and PLA nanoparticles with or without vitamin E tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) as an additive were obtained, in which the sustained release of paclitaxel of more than 20 days was achieved. The coumarin6-loaded PLGA and PLA nanoparticles could penetrate the C6 glioma cell membrane and be internalized. The cytotoxicity of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles seemed to be higher than that of commercial Taxol® after 3 days incubation when paclitaxel concentrations were 10 and 20 μg/ml.


Direct dialysis could be employed to achieve paclitaxel-loaded PLGA and PLA nanoparticles, which could be internalized by C6 glioma cells and enhance the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel because of its penetration to the cytoplasm and sustained release property.

Key Words

cellular uptake cytotoxicity dialysis nanoparticle paclitaxel 





phosphate-buffered saline


poly(poly(l-lactic acid)


poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)



This work is supported by the National University of Singapore under the grant number R279-000-095-112. The authors thank Professor Si-Shen Feng for many helpful discussions. They also express their appreciation to Professor Timothy Lee for providing the C6 glioma cell line samples and lab officer Kong Heng for helpful discussion and technical support on the confocal microscopy experiments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Molecular Engineering of Biological and Chemical SystemsSingapore-MIT AllianceSingaporeSingapore

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