Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal

, Volume 45, Issue 9, pp 547–551 | Cite as

Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of new ninhydrin adduct of embelin

  • S. Mahendran
  • S. Badami
  • S. Ravi
  • B. S. Thippeswamy
  • V. P. Veerapur

Based on a reaction of ninhydrin with phenols, a new embelin-ninhydrin adduct has been synthesized and characterized. The adduct exhibits high antioxidant activity in the DPPH test. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was also found to be better than that of the parent compound (embelin). In the acetic-acid-induced writhing test, almost complete abolition of writhing was observed at 10 and 20 mg/(kg body weight) doses of embelin-ninhydrin adduct and the results were better than those achieved with the standard drug pentazocine.


Embelin, ninhydrin free radicals, analgesic, carrageenan 



One of the authors (S. M.) would like to thank the University Grants Commission (New Delhi) for awarding a Junior Research Fellowship. The authors are grateful to the NMR Research Centre at the Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore) for providing NMR data.


  1. 1.
    S. K. Kundu, A. Patra, and A. Pramanik A, Indian J. Chem., 43, 604–611 (2004).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Fukuhara, A. Ohno, I. Nakanishi, et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 50, 6989–6992 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. R. Prabhakar, V. P. Veerapur, P. Bansal, et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 14, 7113–7120 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. V. Padmanabha Rao and V. Venkateswarlu, Tetrahedron, 20, 969–971 (1963).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    O. P. Gupta, M. M. Ali, B. J. Ray Ghatak, et al., Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 21, 31–39 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Chitra, E. Sukumar, V. Suja, et al., Chemotherapy, 40, 109–113 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Joshi, J. P. Kamat, and T. Mukherjee, Chem.-Biol. Interact., 167, 125–134 (2007).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. A.Winter, E. A. Risley, and G.W. Nuss, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 111, 544–547 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Le Bars, M. Gozariu, and S. Cadden, Pharmacol. Rev., 53, 628–651 (2001).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. R. Sulaiman, Z. A. Zakaria, A. S. Bujarimin, et al., Pharm. Biol., 46, 838–845 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Chitra, C. S. S. Devi, and E. Sukumar, Fitoterapia, 74, 401–403 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. E. Feresin, A. Tapia, M. Sortino, et al., J. Ethnopharmacol., 88, 241–247 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. O. Midiwo and L. O. Manguro Arot, Nat. Product Lett., 8, 11–14 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Badami, O. Prakash, S. H. Dongre, et al., Indian J. Pharmacol., 37, 251–252 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. K. Kulkarni, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology (Vallabh Prakashan., New Delhi, India, 1999), pp. 125–128.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. A. Dykstra and J. H. Woods, J. Pharmacol. Meth., 15, 263–269 (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Mahendran
    • 1
  • S. Badami
    • 2
  • S. Ravi
    • 3
  • B. S. Thippeswamy
    • 2
  • V. P. Veerapur
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryJ. S. S. College of PharmacyOotacamundIndia
  2. 2.Sree Siddaganga College of PharmacyTumkurIndia
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryKarpagam UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations