Advertisement

Generation of Long Laminar Plasma Jets: Experimental and Numerical Analyses

  • Sen-Hui Liu
  • Shan-Lin Zhang
  • Cheng-Xin Li
  • Lu Li
  • Jia-Hua Huang
  • Juan Pablo Trelles
  • Anthony B. Murphy
  • Chang-Jiu Li
Original Paper

Abstract

A novel direct current non-transferred arc plasma torch that can generate silent, stable and super-long laminar plasma jets in atmospheric air is investigated. The results showed that laminar plasma jets of length ranging from 100 to 720 mm in length can be generated by controlling the gas input rate ranging from 8.5 to 15 L min−1 and the output power from 8.5 to 28 kW. The length of the plasma jets generally increased with the output power and gas flow rate. Observations of temporal evolution of the plasma jet appearance and the voltage demonstrated that the jet is highly stable in the atmospheric environment. The fluid dynamic properties of the laminar plasma jet were studied using a numerical simulation incorporating a laminar flow model and an RNG turbulent flow model. Simulation results show the expansion of a high temperature region close to the torch nozzle exit, corresponding to a bright region observed in experiments.

Keywords

Laminar plasma jet Voltage current characteristics Voltage vibration Numerical simulation 

List of Symbols

Cp

Specific heat at constant pressure (J kg−1K−1)

E

Electric field (V m−1)

T

Temperature (K)

W

Power (W)

I

Current (A)

Q

Gas flow rate (kg s−1)

k

Turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−2)

Greek Symbols

ε

Dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−3)

εr

Net emission coefficient (W m−3sr−1)

κ

Thermal conductivity (W m−1K−1)

μ

Dynamic viscosity (kg m−1s−1)

μt

Turbulent viscosity (kg m−1s−1)

μeff

Effective viscosity (kg m−1s−1)

σ

Electrical conductivity (S m−1)

ρ

Density (kg m−3)

ϕ

Electric potential (V)

Abbreviations

LTE

Local thermodynamic equilibrium

RNG

Renormalization group methods

MHD

Magnetohydrodynamic model

NEC

Net emission coefficient

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Prof. Ren-zhong Huang from the Department of New Materials of Guangzhou Non-Ferrous Metal Research Institute for his selfless help with the computer programming. This work was supported by the Natural Key R&D Program of China (Basic Research Project, Grant No. 2017YFB0306104), the Ph.D. Short-term Academic Visiting Program of Graduate School of Xi’an Jiaotong University and National Ph.D. Degree Program of the China Scholarship Council.

Supplementary material

11090_2018_9949_MOESM1_ESM.gif (6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (GIF 6103 kb)
11090_2018_9949_MOESM2_ESM.tif (4.2 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 4324 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Zhukov MF, Zasypkin IM (2006) Thermal plasma torches—design, characteristics, applications. Cambridge International Science Publishing, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fauchais P (2004) Understanding plasma spraying. J Phys D Appl Phys 37(9):R86–R108.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/37/9/R02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fauchais PL, Heberlein JVR, Boulos MI (2014) Thermal spray fundamentals. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-68991-3
  4. 4.
    Coudert JF, Rat V, Rigot D (2007) Influence of Helmholtz oscillations on arc voltage fluctuations in a dc plasma spraying torch. J Phys D Appl Phys 40(23):7357–7366.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/40/23/016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nogues E, Vardelle M, Fauchais P, Granger P (2008) Arc voltage fluctuations: comparison between two plasma torch types. Surf Coat Technol 202(18):4387–4393.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2008.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    An LT, Gao Y, Sun C (2011) Effects of anode arc root fluctuation on coating quality during plasma spraying. J Therm Spray Technol 20(4):775–781.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-011-9644-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Janisson S, Vardelle A, Coudert JF, Fauchais P, Meillot E (1999) Analysis of the stability of dc plasma gun operating with Ar–He–H2, gas mixtures. Ann N Y Acad Sci 891(1):407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Solonenko OP (ed) (2003) Thermal plasma torches and technologies: plasma torches, basic studies and design. Cambridge international science publishing, pp 9–12Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Solonenko OP, Nishiyama H, Smirnov AV, Takana H, Jang J (2014) Visualization of arc and plasma flow patterns for advanced material processing. J Vis 18:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12650-014-0221-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hideki Hamatani FW (2016) Development of laminar plasma shielded HF-ERW process—advanced welding process of HF-ERW 3. In: Proceedings of the 2012 9th international pipeline conference (pp 1–8)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamatani H, Ohara M, Fuji M (1999) Development of high power hybrid plasma spraying. J Japanese Inst Met 63(1):135–143. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10002548732/en/. (in Japanese)
  12. 12.
    Ma W, Pan WX, Wu CK (2005) Preliminary investigations on low-pressure laminar plasma spray processing. Surf Coat Technol 191(2–3):166–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ma W (2006) Influence of the processing conditions on the characteristics of the clad layers produced with laminar plasma technology. Appl Surf Sci 252(23):8352–8359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.11.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pan WX, Zhang W, Zhang W, Wu C (2001) Generation of long, laminar plasma jets at atmospheric pressure and effects of flow turbulence. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 21(1):23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pan WX, Meng X et al (2008) Experimental observations on the stability and 3-D characteristics of laminar/turbulent plasma jets. J Eng Thermophys 29(1):2–4 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pan WX (2006) Arc voltage fluctuation in dc laminar and turbulent plasma jets generation. Plasma Sci Technol 416(4)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meng X, Pan W, Chen X, Guo Z, Wu C (2011) Temperature measurements in a laminar plasma jet generated at reduced pressure. Vacuum 85(7):734–738.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2010.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meng X, Pan WX, Wu CK (2004) Temperature and velocity measurement of laminar plasma jet. J Eng Thermophys 24(3):5–7 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meng X, Pan WX, Wu CK (2005) Transient measurement and analysis on heat flux distributions of partially-ionized high-temperature laminar flow jet. J Eng Thermophys 26(1):137–139 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheng K, Chen X, Pan WX (2005) Efforts of shroud gas on laminar argon plasma jets impinging on a substrate in ambient air. J Eng Thermophys 26(6):1–3 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang WWX et al (1999) Modelling of laminar plasma jet impinging on a flat plate with approximate box relaxation method. Plasma Sci Technol 1:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang HX, Xi C, Pan WX, Kai C (2007) Comparison of the characteristics of laminar and turbulent impinging plasma jets. J Eng Thermophys 28(4):7–9 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang H-X, Chen X, Cheng K, Pan W (2007) Modeling study on the characteristics of laminar and turbulent argon plasma jets impinging normally upon a flat plate in ambient air. Int J Heat Mass Transf 50(3–4):734–745.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cheng K, Chen X, Wang H-X, Pan W (2006) Modeling study of shrouding gas effects on a laminar argon plasma jet impinging upon a flat substrate in air surroundings. Thin Solid Films 506–507:724–728.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2005.08.148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pan WMX (2007) Comparative observation of Ar, Ar–H2 and Ar–N2 DC arc plasma jets and their arc root behaviour at reduced pressure. Plasma Sci Technol 9:2Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peng Y (2012) Numerical simulation study on flow fields in a non-transferred direct current plasma generator operating at reduced pressure. M. D. thesis, Institute of Mechanics, China Academy of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xu DY (2003) Studies of long laminar plasma jet generation and characteristics. Ph.D. thesis, Tsinghua UniversityGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang Hai-Xing, Chen Xi, Pan Wenxia (2007) Modeling study on the entrainment of ambient air into subsonic laminar and turbulent argon plasma jets. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 27(2):141–162.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-006-9047-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang H-X, Chen X, Pan W (2007) Effects of the length of a cylindrical solid shield on the entrainment of ambient air into turbulent and laminar impinging argon plasma jets. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 28(1):85–105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-007-9109-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xu D-Y, Chen X, Pan W (2005) Effects of natural convection on the characteristics of a long laminar argon plasma jet issuing horizontally into ambient air. Int J Heat Mass Transf 48(15):3253–3255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2005.02.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xu D-Y, Chen X, Cheng K (2003) Three-dimensional modelling of the characteristics of long laminar plasma jets with lateral injection of carrier gas and particulate matter. J Phys D Appl Phys 36(13):1583–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Huang H, Pan W, Guo Z, Wu C (2008) Laminar/turbulent plasma jets generated at reduced pressure. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 36(4):1052–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Duan Z, Heberlein J (2002) Arc instabilities in a plasma spray torch. J Therm Spray Technol 44–51Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu SH, Li CX, Zhang SH et al (2018) A novel structure of YSZ coatings by atmospheric laminar plasma spraying technology. Scr Mater 153:73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu SH, Li CX et al (2018) Development of long laminar plasma jet on thermal spraying process: microstructures of zirconia coatings. Surf Coat Technol 337:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu S-H, Li C-X, Murphy AB, Li CJ (2018) Numerical simulation of the flow characteristics inside a novel plasma spray torch. Plasma Chem Plasma Process (under review)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mohanty P, Stanisic J, Stanisic J, George A, Wang Y (2010) A study on arc instability phenomena of an axial injection cathode plasma Torch. J Therm Spray Technol 19(1–2):465–475.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-009-9444-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Osaki K, Fukumasa O, Kobayashi A (2000) High thermal efficiency-type laminar plasma jet generator for plasma processing. Vacuum 59:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Solonenko OP, Zhukov MF (eds) (1994) Thermal plasma and new materials technology vol 1 investigation and design of thermal plasma generators. Cambridge Interscience Publishing, pp 5–43Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vilotijevic M, Dacic B, Bozic D (2009) Velocity and texture of a plasma jet created in a plasma torch with fixed minimal arc length. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 18(1):15016.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0963-0252/18/1/015016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang JL (2015) Investments of mental rapid manufacturing by laminar plasma torch. University of Science and Technology of China, M.D. dissertation. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    ANSYS Inc. (2016) ANSYS fluent theory guide. USAGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cram LE (1985) Statistical evaluation of radiative power losses from thermal plasmas due to spectral lines. J Phys D Appl Phys 18(3):401–411.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/18/3/009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Murphy AB, Arundelli CJ (1994) Transport coefficients of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon-nitrogen, and argon-oxygen plasmas. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 14(4):451–490.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01570207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boulos M, Fauchais P, Pfender E (1994) Thermal plasmas: fundamentals and applications. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pfender E, Fincke J, Spores R (1991) Entrainment of cold gas into thermal plasma jets. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 11(4):529–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Murphy AB, Kovitya P (1993) Mathematical model and laser-scattering temperature measurements of a direct-current plasma torch discharging into air. J Appl Phys 73(10):4759–4769.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.353840 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen-Hui Liu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shan-Lin Zhang
    • 1
  • Cheng-Xin Li
    • 1
  • Lu Li
    • 2
  • Jia-Hua Huang
    • 2
  • Juan Pablo Trelles
    • 3
  • Anthony B. Murphy
    • 4
  • Chang-Jiu Li
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, School of Materials Science and EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Zhenhuo Plasma Technology Co., LtdChenduChina
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Massachusetts LowellLowellUSA
  4. 4.CSIRO ManufacturingLindfieldAustralia

Personalised recommendations