Removal of Toluene from Air Using a Cycled Storage-Discharge (CSD) Plasma Catalytic Process
- 78 Downloads
Cycled storage-discharge (CSD) air-plasma catalytic process was used for removing toluene from simulated 40% humid air. The different catalytic activities of HZSM-5 and Ag/HZSM-5 catalysts were entered in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor in two-layer form. The experiments were conducted with different filling layout of HZSM-5 and Ag/HZSM5. It is found that the catalysts filling layout, wt% of Ag load on the Ag/HZSM5 layer, the amount of stored toluene at the storage phase, and the discharge gas flow rate were the main factors that could affect the performance of plasma catalytic oxidation of the stored toluene. The performance was maximized when the catalyst-filling layout was 0.5 g HZSM5, followed 0.5 g 5.2 wt% g/HZSM5, and the discharge air flow rate was 1 l/min. When the stored toluene in the storage phase was 77% of toluene adsorbing breakthrough capacity of the first layer catalyst, close to 100% of the stored toluene was oxidized, and so the carbon balance and the CO2 selectivity reached to ~ 100% with no significant O3 and NOx observed in the outlet. By optimizing the storage and discharge period and discharge gas flow, the electrical energy yield and the performance of toluene oxidation were maximized and the energy consumption was minimized.
KeywordsPlasma catalysis Toluene removal Ag/HZSM-5 catalyst Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Cycled storage–discharge (CSD)
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Tarbiat Modares University.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
- 3.Khacef A, Pham HT, Quoc AHT, Le Van T, Cormier JM (2011) Removal of toluene in air by non thermal plasma-catalysis hybrid system. Ispc 20:2–5Google Scholar
- 6.A O’Reilly (1998) Estimation of residence time in co incinceration. Process Saf Environ Prot 76:166–176. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B8JGG-4RSJN5R-C/2/7cd3118853e10277e03ba08462f7d8d4
- 25.Chen HL, Lee HM, Chen SH, Chang MB, Yu SJ, Li SN (2009) Removal of volatile organic compounds by single-stage and two-stage plasma catalysis systems: a review of the performance enhancement mechanisms, current status, and suitable applications. Environ Sci Technol 43:2216–2227. https://doi.org/10.1021/es802679b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Magureanu M, Lukes P, Applications T (2012) Plasma technology for hyperfunctional surfaces low temperature plasmas plasma spray coating. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 31.Fan HY, Li XS, Shi C, Zhao DZ, Liu JL, Liu YX, Zhu AM (2011) Plasma catalytic oxidation of stored benzene in a cycled storage-discharge (csd) process: catalysts, reactors and operation conditions. Plasma Chem Plasma Process 31:799–810. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11090-011-9320-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Kuroda Y, Onishi H, Mori T, Yoshikawa Y, Kumashiro R, Nagao M, Kobayashi H (2002) Characteristics of silver ions exchanged in ZSM-5-type zeolite, aluminosilicate, and SiO2 samples: in comparison with the properties of copper ions exchanged in these materials. J Phys Chem B 106:8976–8987. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp020507r CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 55.Zhang X, Chen W, Zhu J, Feng W, Yan K (2010) Aerosol formation and decomposition of benzene derivatives by AC/DC streamer corona discharge. Int J Plasma Environ Sci Tech 4(2):130–134Google Scholar
- 60.Wang W, Zhu T, Fan X (2013) Removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene by intermittent use of Adsorption and non-thermal plasma regeneration. Paper presented at the 21st international symposium on plasma chemistry (ISPC 21), Queensland, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.ispc-conference.org/ispcproc/ispc21/ID479.pdf
- 63.Hamidzadeh M, Ghassemzadeh M, Tarlani A, Far SS (2015) A comparative study of M/ZSM-5 (M = Pd, Ag, Cu, Ni) catalysts in the selective reduction of nitrogen (II) oxide by ammonia. IJSRST 1(3):6–11Google Scholar
- 70.Methods PB, Buildings I, Bahri M, Haghighat F (2001) EIC climate change technology conference 2013 EIC climate change technology conference pp 1–11Google Scholar
- 71.Yamagata Y, Niho K, Inoue K, Okano H, Muraoka K (2006) Decomposition of volatile organic compounds at low concentrations using combination of densification by zeolite adsorption and dielectric barrier Discharge. Jpn J Appl Phys Part 1 Regul Pap Short Notes Rev Pap 45:8251–8254. https://doi.org/10.1143/jjap.45.8251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar