Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 1393–1415 | Cite as

The Role of Interfacial Reactions in Determining Plasma–Liquid Chemistry

  • Carly E. Anderson
  • Nico R. Cha
  • Alexander D. Lindsay
  • Douglas S. Clark
  • David B. Graves
Original Paper


In this work, we investigate the production of highly oxidative species in solutions exposed to a self-pulsed corona discharge in air. We examine how the properties of the target solution (pH, conductivity) and the discharge power affect the discharge stability and the production of H2O2. Indigo carmine, a common organic dye, is used as an indicator of oxidative strength and in particular, hydroxyl radical (OH·) production. The observed rate of indigo oxidation in contact with the discharge far exceeds that predicted from reactions based on concentrations of species measured in the bulk solution. The generation of H2O2 and the oxidation of indigo carmine indicate a high concentration of highly oxidizing species such as OH· at the plasma–liquid interface. These results indicate that reactions at the air plasma–liquid interface play a dominant role in species oxidation during direct non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment.


Plasma activated water (PAW) Reactive oxygen species Corona discharge Indigo carmine Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11090_2016_9742_MOESM1_ESM.docx (147 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 146 kb)
11090_2016_9742_MOESM2_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carly E. Anderson
    • 1
  • Nico R. Cha
    • 1
  • Alexander D. Lindsay
    • 2
  • Douglas S. Clark
    • 1
  • David B. Graves
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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