Nitrogen Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Induced Oxidation of SnOx Thin Films
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SnOx thin films that were rf-sputter-deposited under various gas flow ratios ([O2]/([O2] + [Ar]) OFR = 3.0, 3.6, 4.2 and 4.8 %) were rapidly annealed using atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) in temperature range of ~350–386 °C for up to 5 min. The original electron probe micro-analysis [O] contents in the as-deposited films were ~25, ~30, ~35 and ~40 % for films deposited at ([O2]/([O2] + [Ar]) gas flow ratios OFR = 3.0, 3.6, 4.2 and 4.8 %, respectively. APPJ annealing increased the [O] content to ~35 % for films deposited at OFR = 3.0 and 3.6 %, where the [O] content remained in similar levels for films deposited at OFR = 4.2 and 4.8 %. Crystalline metallic Sn was identified in films as-deposited at OFR = 3.0 and 3.6 %; on the other hand, an X-ray amorphous SnOx phase was identified in films as-deposited at OFR = 4.2 and 4.8 %. Crystallization and oxidation by APPJ annealing improved the transmittance and blue-shifted the absorption band edge to ~420 nm. All APPJ-annealed films exhibit n-type conductivity that may be contributed by the mixed phases of SnO, SnO2 and a small amount of Sn.
KeywordsAtmospheric pressure plasma jet Oxidation SnOx Sn SnO SnO2
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan [MOST 102-2221-E-002-060, MOST 103-2221-E-002-057, MOST 104-2221-E-002-103 (JZC) and MOST 100-2221-E-002-151-MY3 and MOST 101-2628-E-002-020-MY3 (ICC)]. The authors thank Mr. Chung-Yuan Kao and Ms. Yuan-Tze Lee of the Instrumentation Center of National Taiwan University for their assistances with EPMA and SEM operation.
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