Advertisement

Pastoral Psychology

, Volume 66, Issue 5, pp 595–608 | Cite as

Is Involvement in Religion Associated with Better Sleep Quality?

  • Neal Krause
  • Gail Ironson
Article

Abstract

Findings from a considerable number of studies suggest that a wide range of psychosocial factors are associated with sleep quality. However, it is surprising to find that very few studies assess the relationship between religion and sleep quality. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between three key measures of religion and sleep quality. The data are from a recent nationwide survey of adults of all ages (N = 1774). A conceptual model that contains the following core relationships was evaluated empirically: (1) people who go to church more frequently tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members (spiritual support is assistance that is provided with the explicit purpose of bolster the religious behaviors and beliefs of the recipient), (2) more spiritual support is associated with stronger God-mediated control beliefs (God-mediated control refers to the extent to which people believe God works with them to overcome challenges that arise in life), (3) people with a strong sense of God-mediated control will feel more hopeful about the future, and (4) individuals who are more hopeful will enjoy better quality sleep. Empirical support was found for each of these relationships.

Keywords

Spiritual support God-mediated control Sleep quality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding for this study was provided by the John Templeton Foundation (40077).

References

  1. Adams, G. C., Stoops, M. A., & Skomro, R. P. (2014). Sleep tight: Exploring the relationship between sleep and attachment style across the life span. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18, 495–507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayas, N. T., White, D. P., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., Speizer, F. E., Malhotra, A., & Ju, F. B. (2003). A prospective study of sleep duration and coronary heart disease in women. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 205–209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barna, G. (2006). State of the church: 2006. Ventura: The Barna Group, Ltd.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, P. L. (1967). The sacred sanopy: Elements of a sociological theory. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  5. Boland, E. M., & Ross, R. J. (2015). Recent advances in the study of sleep in the anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 38(4), 761–776.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatric Research, 28, 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Capps, D. (1996). The pastor as agent of hope. Currents in Theology and Mission, 23, 325–335.Google Scholar
  8. DeShon, R. P. (1998). A cautionary note on measurement error correlations in structural equation models. Psychological Methods, 3, 412–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dregan, A., Lallukka, T., & Armstrong, D. (2013). Potential pathways from biopsychosocial risk factors to sleep loss due to worry: A population-based investigation. Journal of Public Mental Health, 12, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellison, C. G., Bradshaw, M., Stroch, J., Marcum, J. P., & Hill, T. D. (2011). Religious doubt and sleep quality: Findings from a national survey of Presbyterians. Review of Religious Research, 53, 119–136.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Fatima, Y., Doi, A. R., & Mamun, A. A. (2015). Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: A systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 16, 137–149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group. (1999). Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research. Kalamazoo: John E. Fetzer Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Gangwisch, J. E., Hyemsfield, S. B., Boden-Albaia, B., Bujs, R. M., Kreifer, G., Opler, M. G., & Malaspina, D. (2008). Sleep duration associated with mortality in the elderly, but not middle-aged adults in a large US sample. Sleep, 31, 1087–1096.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Gillum, R. F. (2013). Religious behavior, sleep quantity, sleep quality, and sleep disorders in American adults. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 40, 133–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottlieb, D. J., Redline, S., Nieto, F. J., Baldwin, C. M., Newman, A. B., Resnick, H. E., & Punjabi, N. M. (2006). Association of usual sleep duration with hypertension: The sleep heart health study. Sleep, 29, 1009–1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hood, R. W., Hill, P. C., & Spilka, B. (2009). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach (4 th ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut points for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Psychological Methods, 1, 130–149.Google Scholar
  18. Hui, C. H., Lau, W. W., Cheung, S. H., Cheung, S. F., Lau, E. Y., & Lam, J. (2015). Predictors and outcomes of experiences deemed religious: A longitudinal investigation. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 25, 107–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jackowska, M., Ronaldson, A., Brown, J., & Steptoe, A. (2016). Biological and psychological correlates of self-reported and objective sleep measures. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 84, 52–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelly, W. E. (2003). Some correlates of sleep disturbance ascribed to worry. Individual Differences Research, 1, 137–146.Google Scholar
  21. Kent, R. G., Ucino, B. N., Cribbet, M. R., Bowen, K., & Smith, T. W. (2015). Social relationships and sleep quality. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49, 912–917.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Krause, N. (2002). Church-based social support and health in old age: Exploring variations by race. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B, S332–S347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krause, N. (2005). God-mediated control and psychological well-being in late life. Research on Aging, 27, 136–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krause, N. (2007). Social involvement in religious institutions and god-mediated control beliefs: A longitudinal investigation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46, 519–537.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Krause, N. (2008). Aging in the church: How social relationships affect health. West Conshohocken: Templeton Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  26. Krause, N., & Hayward, R. D. (2012). Informal support from a pastor and change in hope during late life. Pastoral Psychology, 61, 305–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lau, E., Cheung, S. H., Lam, J., Hui, C. H., Cheung, S. F., & Mok, D. S. (2015). Purpose-driven life: Life goals as a predictor of quality of life and psychological health. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 1163–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lawler-Row, K. A. (2010). Forgiveness as a mediator of the religiosity-health relationship. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lemola, S., Raikkonen, K., Gomez, Y., & Allemand, M. (2013). Optimism and self-esteem are related to sleep. Results from a large community-based sample. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 567–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Little, T. D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. McFadden, S. H., Knepple, A. M., & Armstrong, J. A. (2003). Length and locus of friendship influence, church members’ sense of social support, and comfort with sharing emotions. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 15, 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mukherjee, S., Patel, S. R., Kales, S. N., Ayas, N. T., Strohl, K. P., Gozal, D., & Malhotra, A. (2015). An official American Thoracic Society statement: The importance of healthy sleep. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 191, 1450–1458.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Rammstedt, B. (2007). Who worries and who is happy? Explaining individual differences in worries and satisfaction by personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1626–1634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 21–247.Google Scholar
  35. Serrano, S., Lee, J. W, Dehom, S., & Tonstad, S. (2014). Association between TV watching and sleep in a church-going population. Family and Community Health, 37, 279–287.Google Scholar
  36. Stark, R. (2008). What Americans really believe. Waco: Baylor University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Stark, R., & Finke, R. (2000). Acts of faith: Explaining the human side of religion. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  38. Thielsch, C., Ehring, T., Nestler, S., Wolters, J., Kopei, I., Rist, F., & Andor, T. (2015). Metacognitions, worry and sleep in everyday life: Studying bidirectional pathways using ecological momentary assessment in GAD patients. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 33, 53–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. du Toit, M., & du Toit, S. (2001). Interactive LISREL: User’s guide. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  40. Van Schalkwijk, F. J., Blessinga, A. N., Willemen, A. M., Van Der, W., & Schuengel, C. (2015). Social support moderates the effects of stress on sleep in adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 24, 407–413.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Widaman, K. F. (2012). Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. In H. Cooper (Ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, volume 3 (pp. 361–389). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  42. Zizi, F., Pande, A., Murray-Bachmann, R., Vincent, M., McFarlan, S., Ogedegbe, G., & Jean-Louis, G. (2012). Race/ethnicity, sleep duration, and diabetes mellitus: An analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. American Journal of Medicine, 125, 162–167.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public HealthUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

Personalised recommendations