Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 81, Issue 3–4, pp 393–405 | Cite as

Kinetics of High Temperature Oxidation and Chromia Volatilization for HfC-Containing Nickel-Based Alloys

  • Elodie Conrath
  • Patrice BerthodEmail author
Original Paper


Many cast chromia-scale forming nickel-based superalloys are reinforced by carbides. In such alloys the primary chromium carbides or tantalum carbides rapidly lose their strengthening effect in service at high temperature. This is due to decrease of the volume fraction of the these carbides and to their morphology evolution. Other carbides, notably HfC, are more stable at high temperature and they can be candidates for the reinforcement of this type of superalloys. In this work, three nickel-based alloys containing 25 wt%Cr, 0.25 or 0.50 wt%C, and Hf with contents high enough (3.7 and 5.6 wt%) to promote the formation of numerous primary HfC carbides, were prepared in a foundry. They were tested by oxidation in air for 46 h at 1,200 °C with thermogravimetry measurement and subsequent metallographic characterization. All the mass-gain curves obtained are parabolic and the oxidation rates of the studied alloys are only slightly faster than for the corresponding Hf-free ternary nickel alloys containing the same chromium and carbon contents. The obtained values of the parabolic constant kp and of the chromia volatilization constant kv, deduced by applying the {m × dm/dt = kp–kv × m} method, are typical of a chromia-scale forming system. However, small quantities of HfO2 and NiCrTaO4 oxides are observed in addition to the chromia scale. In the bulk, the volume fraction and morphology of the HfC carbides only changed a little. These alloys appeared thus resistant enough against hot oxidation, this allowing first high temperature mechanical characterization in oxidizing atmosphere, before possibly considering these alloys for real applications.


Nickel-based alloys HfC carbides High temperature oxidation Kinetic constants Scale characteristics 



The authors wish to thank Pascal Villeger who has performed the X-ray diffraction runs.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department CP2S, Faculty of Science and TechnologiesInstitut Jean Lamour (UMR CNRS 7198)Vandoeuvre-lès-NancyFrance

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