Advertisement

Oxidation of Metals

, Volume 81, Issue 3–4, pp 393–405 | Cite as

Kinetics of High Temperature Oxidation and Chromia Volatilization for HfC-Containing Nickel-Based Alloys

  • Elodie Conrath
  • Patrice BerthodEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Many cast chromia-scale forming nickel-based superalloys are reinforced by carbides. In such alloys the primary chromium carbides or tantalum carbides rapidly lose their strengthening effect in service at high temperature. This is due to decrease of the volume fraction of the these carbides and to their morphology evolution. Other carbides, notably HfC, are more stable at high temperature and they can be candidates for the reinforcement of this type of superalloys. In this work, three nickel-based alloys containing 25 wt%Cr, 0.25 or 0.50 wt%C, and Hf with contents high enough (3.7 and 5.6 wt%) to promote the formation of numerous primary HfC carbides, were prepared in a foundry. They were tested by oxidation in air for 46 h at 1,200 °C with thermogravimetry measurement and subsequent metallographic characterization. All the mass-gain curves obtained are parabolic and the oxidation rates of the studied alloys are only slightly faster than for the corresponding Hf-free ternary nickel alloys containing the same chromium and carbon contents. The obtained values of the parabolic constant kp and of the chromia volatilization constant kv, deduced by applying the {m × dm/dt = kp–kv × m} method, are typical of a chromia-scale forming system. However, small quantities of HfO2 and NiCrTaO4 oxides are observed in addition to the chromia scale. In the bulk, the volume fraction and morphology of the HfC carbides only changed a little. These alloys appeared thus resistant enough against hot oxidation, this allowing first high temperature mechanical characterization in oxidizing atmosphere, before possibly considering these alloys for real applications.

Keywords

Nickel-based alloys HfC carbides High temperature oxidation Kinetic constants Scale characteristics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Pascal Villeger who has performed the X-ray diffraction runs.

References

  1. 1.
    M. J. Donachie and S. J. Donachie, Superalloys: A Technical Guide, 2nd edn. (Materials Park: ASM International, 2002).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Young, High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, (Elsevier Corrosion Series, Amsterdam, 2008).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Vasseur, European Patent Applications EP 511099, A1 19921028 (1992).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Berthod, L. Aranda, C. Vébert, and S. Michon, Calphad 28, 159 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Berthod, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 481, 746 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Berthod, Materials Science: An Indian Journal 9, (6), 359 (2013).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Ribaudo and J. Mazumder, Materials Science Engineering A 120–121, 531 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Bouhanek, D. Oquab, and B. Pieraggi, Materials Science Forum 251–254, 33 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Nold and G. Ondracek, Praktische Metallographie 23, (6), 268 (1986).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. G. Kim, Journal of Materials Science 13, (4), 759 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. R. Witzke, Metallurgical Transactions A 7A, (3), 443 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. L. Chen, A. Luo, K. S. Shin, and D. L. Jacobson, Refractory Metals 65 (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Luo, J. J. Park, D. L. Jacobson, B. H. Tsao, and M. L. Ramalingam, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia 29, (6), 729 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Luo, J. J. Park, D. L. Jacobson, B. H. Tsao, and M. L. Ramalingam, Materials Science and Engineering A 177, (1–2), 89 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. J. Park and D. L. Jacobson, in ProceeProceedings of the first International Conference on Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys (1993), p. 241.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. J. Park, International Journal of Refractory Metals Hard Materials 17, (5), 331 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. P. Gao and R. H. Zee, Journal of Materials Science Letters 20, (10), 885 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Berthod, Oxidation of Metals 64, (3/4), 235 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Michon, P. Berthod, L. Aranda, C. Rapin, R. Podor, and P. Steinmetz, Calphad 27, 289 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Berthod, S. Michon, L. Aranda, S. Mathieu, and J. C. Gachon, Calphad 27, 353 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. Conrath and P. Berthod, Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, in press. doi: 10.1179/1743278213Y.0000000105.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department CP2S, Faculty of Science and TechnologiesInstitut Jean Lamour (UMR CNRS 7198)Vandoeuvre-lès-NancyFrance

Personalised recommendations