Prebiotic Syntheses Under Shock in the Water – Formamide – Potassium Bicarbonate – Sodium Hydroxide System
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Syntheses under shock in nitrogen bubbled samples of the water – formamide – bicarbonate – sodium hydroxide system at pH 8.63, 9.46 and 10.44 were performed in the stainless steel preservation capsules. The maximum temperature and pressure in the capsules reached 545 K and 12.5 GPa respectively. Using the LC-MS-MS analysis, the 21 synthesis products have been identified, including amines and polyamines, carboxamide, acetamide and urea derivatives, compounds containing aniline, pyrrolidine, pyrrole, imidazole, as well as alcohol groups. It was found that the Fischer-Tropsch-type syntheses with catalysis on the surface of the stainless steel of the conservation capsule associated with the adsorbed hydrogen cyanide reactions and transamidation processes play the main role in the shock syntheses. Formation reactions of all the above-mentioned compounds have been suggested. It was proposed that hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, isocyanic acid, aminonitrile, aminoacetonitrile, as well as adsorbed species H(a), CH(a), CH2(a), CHOH(a), NH2(a) and H2CNH(a) are especially important for the formation of the products. A reduction reaction of adsorbed bicarbonate with hydrogen to formaldehyde has been first postulated. In the studied system also classical reactions take place – Wöhler’s synthesis of urea and Butlerov’s synthesis of methenamine. It was suggest that material of meteorites may be an effective catalyst in the Fischer-Tropsch-type syntheses at falling of the iron-nickel meteorites in the water – formamide regions on the early Earth. It was concluded that life could have originated due to the impact of meteorites on alkaline water-formamide lakes located near volcanoes on the early Earth.
KeywordsShock wave Prebiotic Fischer-Tropsch-type syntheses Heterogeneous catalysis Formamide Bicarbonate
We are deeply grateful to Dr. Yuri G. Shtyrlin and all scientific workers of the Research-Education Center “Pharmaceutics” of Kazan Federal University for assistance in the organization and implementation of the LC-MS-MS analysis of the samples.
Metodology, general project management, analysis of the experimental data, discussion of the results, writing the article, Shtyrlin V.G.; Shock experiments management, analysis of the experimental data, discussion of the results, Borissenok V.A.; Preparation of the experiments, analysis of the experimental data, discussion of the results, design of the article, Serov N.Y.; Performing shock experiments, Simakov V.G., Bragunets V.A., Shestakov E.E.; Performing LC-MS-MS experiments, Koshkin S.A.; Computation of time-dependences of temperature and pressure at shock, Trunin I.R., Tereshkina I.A.; Discussion of the results, Bukharov M.S., Gilyazetdinov E.M., Sirotkina A.G., Zakharov A.V.
The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) grant No 17-03-00133.
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