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Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 587–609 | Cite as

Preservation and Evolution of Organic Matter During Experimental Fossilisation of the Hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

  • François OrangeEmail author
  • Jean-Robert Disnar
  • Pascale Gautret
  • Frances Westall
  • Nadège Bienvenu
  • Nathalie Lottier
  • Daniel Prieur
Microbial Fossils

Abstract

Identification of the earliest traces of life is made difficult by the scarcity of the preserved microbial remains and by the alteration and potential contamination of the organic matter (OM) content of rocks. These factors can confuse interpretations of the biogenicity and syngenicity of fossilised structures and organic molecules found in ancient rocks. In order to improve our knowledge of the fossilisation processes and their effects at the molecular level, we made a preliminary study of the fate of OM during experimental fossilisation. Changes in the composition and quantity of amino acids, monosaccharides and fatty acids were followed with HPLC, GC and GC-MS analyses during 1 year of silicification of the hyperthermophilic Archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Although the cells themselves did not fossilise and the accompanying extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) did, our analyses showed that the OM initially present in both cells and EPS was uniformly preserved in the precipitated silica, with amino acids and fatty acids being the best preserved compounds. This study thus completes previous data obtained by electron microscopy investigations of simulated microbial fossilisation and can help better identification and interpretation of microbial biosignatures in both ancient rocks and in recent hydrothermal formations and sediments.

Keywords

Archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Fossilisation Amino acids Monosaccharides Fatty acids 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was financially supported by the CNRS and CNES. The authors would like to warmly thank Annie Richard for technical assistance with the electronic microscopy, and the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on this manuscript.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • François Orange
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Jean-Robert Disnar
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Pascale Gautret
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Frances Westall
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nadège Bienvenu
    • 6
  • Nathalie Lottier
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Daniel Prieur
    • 6
  1. 1.Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire – UPR 4301, CNRSOrléans Cedex 2France
  2. 2.Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers en région Centre – UMS 3116Orléans Cedex 2France
  3. 3.Univ d’Orléans, ISTO, UMR 7327OrléansFrance
  4. 4.CNRS/INSU, ISTO, UMR 7327OrléansFrance
  5. 5.BRGM, ISTO, UMR 7327OrléansFrance
  6. 6.Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer – UMR 6197, Technopôle Brest IroisePlouzanéFrance

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