Advertisement

What limits the efficiency of GaN-based superluminescent light-emitting diodes (SLEDs)?

  • Joachim PiprekEmail author
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Gallium-nitride-based SLEDs are attractive light sources for augmented reality displays and other applications. However, the electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency (PCE) of SLEDs is still far below the record-high values reported for LEDs. Utilizing advanced numerical device simulation, this paper investigates the internal physical processes that cause the low PCE of SLEDs. The poor hole conductivity strongly reduces the electrical efficiency, similar to laser diodes. However, in contrast to laser diodes, the rising carrier density in the active layers is identified as main reason for enhanced Auger recombination that severely limits the internal quantum efficiency. Design improvement options are demonstrated.

Keywords

Superluminescent light-emitting diode SLED Laser diode InGaN/GaN Power conversion efficiency Auger recombination Hole conductivity Self-heating 

Notes

References

  1. Alatawi, A.A., Holguin-Lerma, J.A., Kang, C.H., Shen, C., Subedi, R.S., Albardi, A.M., Alyamani, A.Y., Ng, T.K., Ooi, B.S.: High-power blue superluminescent diode for high CRI lighting and high-speed visible light communication. Opt. Express 26, 26355–26364 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Castiglia, A., Rossetti, M., Malinverni, M., Mounir, C., Matuschek, N., et al.: Recent progress on GaN-based superluminescent light-emitting diodes in the visible range. SPIE Proc. 10532, 1053421X (2018)Google Scholar
  3. Hurni, C.A., David, A., Cich, M.J., Aldaz, R.I., et al.: Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kawaguchi, M., Imafuji, O., Nozaki, S., Hagino, H., et al.: Optical-loss suppressed InGaN laser diodes using undoped thick waveguide structure. Proc. SPIE 9748, 974818 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kioupakis, E., Rinke, P., Van de Walle, C.: Determination of internal loss in nitride lasers from first principles. App. Phys. Express 3, 082101 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Matuschek, N., Duelk, M.: In: Piprek, J. (ed.) Handbook of Optoelectronic Device Modeling and Simulation, vol. 19. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2017)Google Scholar
  7. Nozaki, S., Yoshida, S., Yamanaka, K., Imafuji, O., et al.: High-power and high-temperature operation of an InGaN laser over 3 W at 85 °C using a novel double-heat-flow packaging technology. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 04EH05 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ohno, H., Orita, K., Kawaguchi, M., Yamanaka, K., Takigawa, S.: 200 mW GaN-based superluminescent diode with a novel waveguide structure. In: IEEE Photonics Conference, WN2 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. Piprek, J., Nakamura, S.: Physics of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers. IEE Proc. Optoelectr. 149, 145151 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. Piprek, J.: Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices: Introduction to Physics and Simulation. Academic Press, San Diego (2003)Google Scholar
  11. Piprek, J., Roemer, F., Witzigmann, B.: On the uncertainty of the Auger recombination coefficient extracted from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode efficiency droop measurements. Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101101 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Piprek, J.: Comparative efficiency analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 021104 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Piprek, J.: What limits the efficiency of high-power InGaN/GaN lasers? J. Quant. Electron. 53, 2000104 (2017a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Piprek, J.: What limits the power conversion efficiency of GaN-based lasers? Proc. SPIE 10098, 100980Q (2017b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Piprek, J.: Energy efficiency analysis of GaN-based blue light emitters. ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 9, 015008 (2020)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rossetti, M., Napierala, J., Matuschek, N., Achatz, U., Duelk, M., Vélez, C., Castiglia, A., Grandjean, N., Dorsazc, J., Feltin, E.: Superluminescent light emitting diodes—the best out of two worlds. SPIE Proc. 8252, 825208 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Strauss, U., Somers, A., Heine, U., Wurm, T., et al.: GaInN laser diodes from 440 to 530 nm: a performance study on single mode and multi-mode R&D designs. Proc. SPIE 10123, 101230A (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NUSOD Institute LLCNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations