Relation between carriers hopping rate and structural constants in amorphous carbon nickel films with different nickel nanoparticles distributions

  • Nastaran Asareh
  • Vali DaloujiEmail author
  • Shahram Solaymani
  • Sahar Rezaee


In this paper, the films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering technique. The effect of different mosaic targets made of nickel strips and graphite pure on the dielectric relaxation time, the carriers hopping rate, the fractal dimensions and the optical loss of films were studied. The values of the optical band gap of films using the cross-point between the tangent of the plot of lower and higher values of the photon energy were calculated. The films deposited at 4.64% have maximum hopping rate of about 8.6 × 1012 S−1. It can be seen that the films deposited at 3.92% have minimum value of fractal dimension of 2.27. With increasing Ni content of films a nonmetal–metal transition is observed which it is explainable by the power law of percolation theory. Critical metal content and the critical exponent of films were 87.25% and 1, respectively. With increasing Ni content, the carriers effective mass of films decreased and average lattice separation values of films increased. Films deposited at 3.92% have minimum value of Debye frequency νD of about 1.09 × 1012 Hz. The value of energy loss by free charge carriers when traversing the bulk and surface of films at 3.92% has maximum value and it has an increasing function behavior with energy.


Carriers hopping rate Carriers effective mass Electrical resistivity Optical band gap Optical loss Fractal dimensions 



  1. Babadagli, T., Develi, K.: Fractal characteristics of rocks fractured under tension. Theor. Appl. Fract. Mech. 39, 73–88 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barzilai, S., Goldstein, Y., Balberg, I., Helman, J.S.: Magnetic and transport properties of granular cobalt films. Phys. Rev. B 23, 1809 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang, Y.Y., Wang, D.Y., Wu, W.: Catalysis effect of metal doping on wear properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by a cathodic-arc activated deposition process. Thin Solid Films 420–421, 241–247 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cullity, B.D., Stock, S.R.: Elements of X-ray Diffraction. Prentice Hall, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  5. Dalouji, V.: Influence of surface topography and annealing temperature on the surface and volume of dissipation electrical energy and Spitzer–Fan model in Al doped ZnO films. Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 325 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dalouji, V., Elahi, S.M., Saadi Alecasir, M.: Study of electric susceptibility, electrical resistivity and energy loss functions of carbon–nickel composite films at different annealing temperatures. Phys. Scr. 90, 115802 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dalouji, V., Elahi, S.M., Solaymani, S., Ghaderi, A., Elahi, H.: Carbon films embedded by nickel nanoparticles: fluctuation in hopping rate and variable-range hopping with respect to annealing temperature. Appl. Phys. A 122, 541 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dalouji, V., Elahi, S.M., Ahmadmarvili, A.: Electric susceptibility and energy loss functions of carbon–nickel composite films at different deposition times. Silicon 9, 717–722 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dalouji, V., Solaymani, S., Dejam, L., Elahi, S.M., Rezaee, S., Mehrparvar, D.: Gap states of ZnO thin films by new methods: optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity and optical dispersion energy. Chin. Phys. Lett. 35, 027701 (2018a)Google Scholar
  10. Dalouji, V., Solaymani, S., Rezaee, S., Mehrparvar, D.: Nonmetal—metal transition in carbon films embedded by Ni nanoparticles: the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR), Raman spectra and surface morphology. Optik 156, 338–345 (2018b)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dalouji, V., Mehrparvar, D., Solaymani, S., Rezaee, S.: Effect of nickel distributions embedded in amorphous carbon films on transport properties. Chin. Phys. Lett. 35, 026501 (2018c)Google Scholar
  12. Fox, M.: Optical Properties of Solids. Oxford University Prees Inc., New York (2001)Google Scholar
  13. Mahdavi, S.: Nano-TiO2 modified with natural and chemical compounds as efficient adsorbents for the removal of Cd+2, Cu+2, and Ni+2 from water. Clean Technol. Environ. Policy 18, 81–94 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Majidi, S., Achour, A., Rai, D.P., Nayebi, P., Solaymani, S., Nezafat, N.B., Elahi, S.M.: Effect of point defects on the electronic density states of SnC nanosheets: first-principles calculations. Results Phys. 7, 3209–3215 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mohamed, S.H., Shaaban, E.R.: Investigation of the refractive index and dispersion parameters of tungsten oxynitride thin films. Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 249–253 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mott, N.F., Davis, E.A.: Electronic Processe in Non-crystalline Materials. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1979)Google Scholar
  17. Raoufi, D.: Fractal analyses of ITO thin films: a study based on power spectral density. Phys. B 405, 451–455 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sakr, G.B., Yahia, I.S., Fadel, M., Fouad, S.S., Romcevic, N.: Optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity, dielectric properties and new methods for determining the gap states of CuSe thin films. J. Alloys Compd. 507, 557–562 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sedlackova, K., Lobotka, P., Vavra, I., Radnoczi, G.: Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of carbon–nickel composite thin films. Carbon 43, 2192–2198 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Serin, T., Yildiz, A., Sahin, S.H., Serin, N.: Multiphonon hopping of carriers in CuO thin films. Phys. B 406, 3551–3555 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Solaymani, S., Ghoranneviss, M., Elahi, S.M., et al.: The relation between structural, rugometric and fractal characteristics of hard dental tissues at micro and nano levels. Microsc. Res. Tech. 82, 421–428 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ţălu, Ş., Bramowicz, M., Kulesza, S., Dalouji, V., Solaymani, S., Valedbagi, S.: Fractal features of carbon–nickel composite thin films. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79, 1208–1213 (2016a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ţălu, Ş., Bramowicz, M., Kulesza, S., Ghaderi, A., Dalouji, V., Solaymani, S., Fathikenari, M., Ghoranneviss, M.: Fractal features and surface micromorphology of diamond nanocrystals. J. Microsc. 264, 143–152 (2016b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ţălu, Ş., Bramowicz, M., Kulesza, S., Ghaderi, A., Dalouji, V., Solaymani, S., Khalaj, Z.: Microstructure and micromorphology of Cu/Co nanoparticles: surface texture analysis. Electron. Mater. Lett. 12, 580–588 (2016c)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ţălu, Ş., Bramowicz, M., Kulesza, S., Dalouji, V., Ilkhani, M., Ghaderi, A., Solaymani, S.: Influence of annealing process on surface micromorphology of carbon–nickel composite thin films. Opt. Quantum Electron. 49, 204 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang, S., Jones, A.H.S., Teer, D.G.: The development of sputtered carbon based coatings incorporating Cr, Ti, B and N. Surf. Coat. Technol. 133–134, 369–375 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nastaran Asareh
    • 1
  • Vali Dalouji
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shahram Solaymani
    • 2
  • Sahar Rezaee
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceMalayer UniversityMalayerIran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, West Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Physics, Kermanshah BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations