Effect of Yagi–Uda nano-antenna element shape on the directivity and radiation efficiency

  • Fatma E. Helmy
  • Mohamed Hussein
  • Mohamed Farhat. O. Hameed
  • Ahmed Shaker
  • M. El-Adawy
  • S. S. A. ObayyaEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. 2018 - Optical Wave and Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modelling


In this paper, different optimal designs of Yagi–Uda nano-antennas (NAs) are introduced and analyzed based on different element shapes to maximize the directivity and radiation efficiency. The studied element shapes include triangular, hexagonal, cube, square, rotated square, rectangular, ellipsoid, and elliptical cylinder shapes. The NAs parameters for each design are optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm to achieve high directivity at a wavelength of 500 nm for wireless point-to-point applications. The designs are numerically analysed using 3-D finite difference time domain method (3-D FDTD) via Lumerical software package. To illustrate the performance of the proposed antennas, different radiation parameters such as radiation pattern, directivity, and radiation efficiency have been studied. Moreover, a tolerance of ± 5% is calculated to consider the imperfections that may appear in the fabrication process at a nanoscale. The optimized rectangular prism NA achieves the highest directivity of 24.21 with an efficiency of 50.74%. However, the optimized triangular prism NA has the highest efficiency of 73% with a directivity of 20.89. This enhancement is mainly attributed to the efficient coupling between array elements along with low side lobe level. However, a trade-off between directivity and radiation efficiency is obtained by the hexagonal prism NA with directivity of 21.9 and radiation efficiency of 69.1%.


Nano-antennas Yagi–Uda Directivity Radiation efficiency Particle swarm optimization (PSO) 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors would like to clarify that there no potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial).

Ethical approval

The authors would like to ensure the objectivity and transparency in the submitted research paper. Additionally, the authors would like to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed through the preparation of the proposed paper.

Human and animal rights

Moreover, the submitter research does not involve human participants, or animals.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatma E. Helmy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohamed Hussein
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mohamed Farhat. O. Hameed
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Ahmed Shaker
    • 1
  • M. El-Adawy
    • 1
  • S. S. A. Obayya
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Electronics, Communications, and Computers Department, Faculty of EngineeringHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Center for Photonics and Smart MaterialsZewail City of Science and TechnologyGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Physical Department, Faculty of ScienceAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt
  4. 4.Nanotechnology Engineering Program, University of Science and TechnologyZewail City of Science and TechnologyGizaEgypt
  5. 5.Mathematic and Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of EngineeringMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

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