Sr4Al14O25: Eu2+, Dy3+/silica core–shell particles synthesized via urea combustion method for carbon dioxide reduction in plants

  • Maria Arielle Johnna Veronica Gaerlan Del Rosario
  • Yi-Sheng Lai
  • Yen-Hsun SuEmail author


Strontium Aluminate doped with Europium and Dysprosium is one of the most widely studied phosphors because of its high intensity and long persistence time. In this study, the unique characteristics of strontium aluminate based phosphors, specifically Sr4Al14O25: Eu2+, Dy3+, was utilized as light source for plants for enhanced carbon dioxide reduction in dark field conditions. The Sr4Al14O25: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized using the combustion method. Stoichiometric amounts of aqueous precursors were dissolved in water, then placed in a high temperature furnace at 600 °C to obtain a foamy, amorphous precursor powder. The powders were cooled to room temperature and then grinded. After grinding, the powders were calcined for 8 h at 1300 °C. The powders were then encapsulated with silica particles using the Stöber process to prevent the oxidation of Eu2+ without a reducing atmosphere during calcination. The obtained coated and uncoated particles were then characterized using SEM, TEM–EDX, XRD and photoluminescence analysis to determine the effect of the core–shell structure on the luminescence properties of the phosphors. Finally, the obtained phosphor-silica core–shell particles will be attached to the surface of four different plant species commonly grown indoors using a mixture of natural oils and waxes as adhesive. The effect of the addition of phosphor as an external light source on the amount of carbon dioxide production of the plants will be monitored and compared to a control specimen without the phosphor as well as with other artificial light sources.


Photoluminescence Phosphor Core–shell structure Carbon dioxide reduction 


  1. Abe, S., Joos, J.J., Martin, L.I., Hens, Z., Smet, P.F.: Hybrid remote quantum dot/powder phosphor designs for display backlights. Light Sci. Appl. 6, 1–9 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Binnemans, K.: Interpretation of europium(III) spectra. Coord. Chem. Rev. 295, 1–45 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burchett, M.D.: Potted-plants can significantly reduce urban/indoor air pollution (2012). Accessed 12 March 2018
  4. Chen, Y., Lei, B., Zheng, M., Zhang, H., Zhuang, J., Liu, Y.: A dual-emitting core–shell carbon dot–silica–phosphor composite for white light emission. Nanoscale 7, 20142–20148 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, B., Zhang, Z., Han, Z., Xiao, Y., Lei, S.: SrAlxOy:Eu2+, Dy3+ (x = 4) nanostructures: structure and morphology transformations and long-lasting phosphorescence properties. CrystEngComm 13, 3545–3550 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Faughn, J.S., Serway, R.A.: College Physics, p. 675. Brooks/Cole, Thomson (2003)Google Scholar
  7. Haranath, D., Sharma, P., Chander, H., Bhalla, A.A.B.N., Halder, S.: Role of boric acid in synthesis and tailoring the properties of calcium aluminate phosphor. Mater. Chem. Phys. 101(1), 163–169 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang, W.-J., Su, Y.-H., Kung, P.-Y., Lin, K.-B.: Optimizing after-glow luminescent parameters of Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Dy3+ by sol-gel method and combustion process. Opt. Quant. Electron. 49(7), 251 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kshatri, D., Khare, A.: Optical properties of rare earth doped strontium aluminate (SAO) phosphors: a review. Opt. Spectrosc. 117(5), 769–783 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liang, Y.-J., Liu, F., Chen, Y.-F., Wang, X.-J., Sun, K.-N., Pan, Z.: New function of the Yb3+ ion as an efficient emitter of persistent luminescence in the short-wave infrared. Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16124 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liepina, V., Smits, K., Millers, D., Grigorjeva, L., Monty, C.: The luminescent properties of persistent strontium aluminate phosphor prepared by solar induced solid state synthesis. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Riga, 012045 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. Nasco: Photosynthesis and Respiration Chamber. Nasco. Accessed 14 March 2018
  13. Pan, Z., Lu, Y.-Y., Liu, F.: Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near infrared from Cr3+-doped zinc gallogermanates. Nat. Mater. 11, 58–63 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rojas-Hernandez, R., Rodriguez, M., Rubio-Marcos, F., Serrano, A., Fernandez, J.: Designing nanostructured strontium aluminate particles with high luminescence properties. J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 1268–1276 (2015a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rojas-Hernandez, R., Rodriguez, M., Fernandez, J.F.: Role of oxidizing agent to complete the synthesis of strontium aluminate based phosphors by the combustion method. RSC Adv. 5(4), 3104–3112 (2015b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sampaio, D., Souza, N., Santos, J., Silva, D., Fonseca, E., Kucera, C., Faugas, B., Ballato, J., Silva, R.: Transluscent and persistent luminescent SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ ceramics. Ceram. Int. 42, 4306–4312 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang, W.-N., Widiyastuti, W., Ogi, T., Lenggoro, I.W., Okuyama, K.: Correlations between crystallite/particle size and photoluminescence properties of submicrometer phosphors. Chem. Mater. 19(7), 1723–1730 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wu, Z., Shi, J., Wang, J., Gong, M., Su, Q.: Synthesis and luminescent properties of Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+ blue–green emitting phosphor for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 19, 339–342 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wu, S., Pan, Z., Chen, R., Liu, X.: Long afterglow phosphorescent materials. Springer Briefs Mater. 101–116 (2017)Google Scholar
  20. Xiao.: Combustion Synthesis of Nanophosphors. Princeton University. (2018). Accessed 12 March 2018
  21. Zhao, S., Elert, G.: The Physics Factbook. Midwood Science. (2007). Accessed 12 March 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Arielle Johnna Veronica Gaerlan Del Rosario
    • 1
  • Yi-Sheng Lai
    • 1
  • Yen-Hsun Su
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainan CityTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations