Advertisement

Policy Sciences

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 191–210 | Cite as

Emotion-driven negative policy bubbles

  • Moshe MaorEmail author
Research Note

Abstract

Existing explanations of systematic undersupply of policy (e.g., institutional frictions, policy drift, and loss aversion) highlight the role of institutional and cognitive factors in the policy process while paying little attention to the role of emotions and emotional sentiments (e.g., policy mood). To bridge this gap, this article conceptualizes the role of negative emotions (e.g., fear, anger, hatred, disgust) and emotional sentiments in driving systematic policy underreaction (or what I have termed a negative policy bubble). Regarding the birth of emotion-driven negative policy bubbles, the behavioral understanding advanced here points to (1) an endogenous process that affects opinion formation, attention, learning, behavior, and attitudes; (2) an exogenous shock that “turns on” an endogenous process; (3) emotional manipulation by emotional entrepreneurs, or (4) a process by which the psychological context within which the policy process takes place conditions policy dynamics. Self-reinforcing processes interact with the contagion of emotions, imitation, and herd behavior to reinforce the lack of confidence in the policy, thereby creating a lock-in effect of systematic undersupply of policy. This process may be interrupted following modest endogenous or exogenous perturbations; a decrease in the intensity and duration of negative emotions and/or an increase in their speed of decline by emotional entrepreneurs, as well as following the reduction in negativity bias when the information environment becomes predominantly negative. The paper also provides guidance on productive directions for future research.

Keywords

Policy change Underreaction Underinvestment Emotion Emotional entrepreneurs Policy mood 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Earlier versions of this article—including the first version, entitled “Policy Anti-Bubbles”—were presented at the workshop on “Financial, Technological, Social and Political Bubbles,” ETH Risk Center, Zurich, 2015; the Biennial ECPR Standing Group for Regulatory Governance Conference, 2014; the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, 2014; the Institute of Political Science, University of Heidelberg, 2014, and the International Workshop on “Policy Design and Governance Failures,” Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 2014. I thank the audiences of these events for useful comments and suggestions. I also thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments on the manuscript. All remaining errors are my own.

References

  1. Abrajano, M., & Hajnal, Z. L. (2015). White backlash: Immigration, race, and American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akerlof, G. A., & Shiller, R. J. (2009). Animal spirits: How human psychology drives the economy, and why it matters for global capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Armony, J. L., Servan-Schreiber, D., Cohen, J. D., & LeDoux, J. E. (1997). Computational modeling of emotion: Explorations through the anatomy and physiology of fear conditioning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1, 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asch, S. (1952). Social psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashby, G. F., Isen, A. M., & Turken, U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106, 529–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baddeley, M. (2013). Behavioral economics and finance. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Baddeley, M., Burke, C., Schultz, W., & Tobler, P. (2012). Herding in financial behavior: A behavioral and neuroeconomic analysis of individual differences. Cambridge Working Papers in Economics. Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, R. (1993). Eco-scam: The false prophets of ecological apocalypse. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  9. Banerjee, A. V. (1992). A simple model of herd behavior. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107, 797–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barash, V. (2011). The dynamics of social contagion. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University. Ithaka, NY: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  11. Bargh, J. A. (1984). Automatic and conscious processing of social information. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (pp. 1–43). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Bar-Tal, D., Halperin, E., & de Rivera, J. (2007). Collective emotions in conflict: Societal implications. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 441–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baumgartner, F. R. (2015, March). Policy competition and friction. Paper presented at the ECPR workshop on The Politics of Non Proportionate Policy Response, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  14. Baumgartner, F. R., Berry, J. M., Hojnacki, M., Kimbell, D. C., & Leech, B. L. (2009a). Lobbying and policy change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why?. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baumgartner, F. R., Breunig, C., Green-Pedersen, C., Jones, B. D., Mortensen, P. B., Nutemans, M., & Walgrave, S. (2009b). Punctuated equilibrium in comparative perspective. American Journal of Political Science, 53(3), 603–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baumgartner, F. R., & Jones, B. D. (2002). Positive and negative feedback in politics. In F. R. Baumgartner & B. D. Jones (Eds.), Policy dynamics (pp. 3–28). Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Baumgartner, F. R., & Jones, B. D. (2009). Agendas and Instability in American Politics (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bénabou, R. (2011). Groupthink: Collective delusions in organizations and markets. Working Paper. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14764.pdf. Accessed 17 December 2014.
  19. Bennett, W. L. (1990). Toward a theory of press-state relations in the United States. Journal of Communication, 40, 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bodenhausen, G. V., Sheppard, L. A., & Kramer, G. (1994). Negative affect and social judgment: The differential impact of anger and sadness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Brader, T., & Corrigan, B. (2005). Emotional cues and campaign dynamics in political advertising. Washington, DC: Proceedings from Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.Google Scholar
  23. Brader, T., & Marcus, G. E. (2013). Emotion and political psychology. In L. Huddy, D. O. Sears, & J. S. Levy (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of political psychology (2nd ed., pp. 165–204). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Brader, T., Marcus, G. E., & Miller, K. L. (2011). Emotion and public opinion. In G. C. Edwards III, L. R. Jacobs, & R. Y. Shapiro (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of American Public Opinion and the Media (pp. 384–401). Oxford: University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  25. Burstein, P. (2003). The impact of public opinion on public policy: A review and an agenda. Political Research Quarterly, 56, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burstein, P. (2014). American public opinion, advocacy, and policy in congress: What the public wants and what it gets. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Chauhan, P., Fera, A. G., Welsh, M. B., Balazon, E., & Misshula, E. (2014). Trends in misdemeanor arrest rates in New York. Report Presented to the Citizens Crime Commission. New York: New York.Google Scholar
  28. Clore, G. L., & Ortony, A. (2013). Psychological construction in the OCC Model of emotion. Emotion Review, 5, 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Clore, G. L., & Palmer, J. (2009). Affective guidance of intelligent agents: How emotion controls cognition. Cognitive Systems Research, 10, 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clore, G. L., & Storbeck, J. (2006). Affect as information about liking, efficacy, and importance. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Affect in social thinking and behavior (pp. 123–142). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  31. Cobb, R. W., & Ross, M. H. (1997). Agenda setting and the denial of agenda access: Key concepts. In R. W. Cobb & M. H. Ross (Eds.), Cultural strategies of agenda denial (pp. 3–24). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  32. Conlan, Timothy J., Posner, Paul L., & Beam, David R. (2014). Pathways of power: The dynamics of national policymaking. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Conrad, P. (1989). The Social Meaning of AIDS. In Rist, R. C. (Ed.), Policy issues for the 1990s. Policy Studies Review Annual, Vol. 9, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 75–88.Google Scholar
  34. Cox, R. H., & Béland, D. (2013). Valence, policy ideas, and the rise of sustainability. Governance, 26, 307–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. David, J. P., Green, P. J., Martin, R., & Suls, J. (1997). Differential roles of neuroticism, extraversion, and event desirability for mood in daily life: An integrative model of top-down and bottom-up influences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de Becker, G. (1997). The gift of fear: Survival signals that protect us from violence. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.Google Scholar
  37. de Rivera, J. (1992). Emotional climate: Social structure and emotional dynamics. In K. T. Strongman (Ed.), International review of studies on emotion (Vol. 2). New York, NY: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Epstein, S. (1996). Impure science: AIDS, activism, and the politics of knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  39. Feldman, R. (2013). Techniques and applications for sentiment analysis. Communications of the ACM, 56, 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Finucane, M. L. (2013). The role of feelings in perceived risk. In S. Roeser, R. Hillerbrand, P. Sandin, & M. Peterson (Eds.), Essentials of risk theory (pp. 57–74). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Finucane, M. L., Alhakami, A., Slovic, P., & Johnson, S. M. (2000). The affect heuristic in judgment of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2003). Judgment and decision making: The dance of affect and reason. In S. Schneider & J. Shanteau (Eds.), Emerging perspectives on judgment and decision research (pp. 327–364). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  44. Fisk, A., Kitayama, S., Markus, H., & Nisbet, R. E. (1998). The cultural matrix of social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., pp. 915–981). San Francisco, CA: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  45. Fox, D. M. (1989). AIDS and the American Health Polity: The history and prospects of a crisis of authority. In Rist, R. C. (Ed.), Policy Issues for the 1990s. Policy Studies Review Annual, Vol. 9, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, pp. 75–88.Google Scholar
  46. Francis, D. P. (2012). Deadly AIDS Policy Failure by the Highest Levels of the US Government: A personal look back 30 years later for lessons to respond better to future epidemics. Journal of Public Health Policy, 33, 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Franklin, M. N., & Wlezien, C. (1997). The responsive public: Issue salience, policy change and preferences for European Unification. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 9(3), 347–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gasper, K., & Clore, G. K. (2002). Attending to the big picture: Mood and global versus local processing of visual information. Psychological Science, 13, 34–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gervais, S., & Odean, T. (2001). Learning to be overconfident. Review of Financial Studies, 14, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Geva, N., & Garcia, B. E. (2013, July). The emotional calculus of public support for counterterrorism. Paper delivered at the annual conference of the International Society of Political Psychology, Israel.Google Scholar
  53. Geva, N., Mayhar, J., & Skorick, M. (2000). The cognitive calculus of foreign policy decision making: An experimental assessment. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44(4), 447–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Geva, N., & Skorick, M. (2006). The emotional calculus of foreign policy decisions: Getting emotions out of the closet. In D. P. Redlawsk (Ed.), Feeling politics: Emotion in political information processing (pp. 209–226). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  55. Gilbert, D. T., Pinel, E. C., Wilson, T. D., Blumberg, S. J., & Wheatley, T. P. (1998). Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 617–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gordon, S. L. (1981). The sociology of sentiments and emotion. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 562–592). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  57. Gross, James J. (2008). Emotion regulation. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 497–512). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. Hacker, J. S. (2004). Privatizing risk without privatizing the welfare state: The hidden politics of social policy retrenchment in the United States. American Political Science Review, 98, 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Halperin, E. (2014). Emotion, emotion regulation, and conflict resolution. Emotion Review, 6, 68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hancock, A.-M. (2004). The politics of disgust: The public identity of the welfare queen. New York: New York University.Google Scholar
  61. Hatfield, E., Carpenter, M., & Rapson, R. L. (2014). Emotional contagion as a precursor to collective emotions. In C. von Scheve & M. Salmela (Eds.), Collective emotions (pp. 108–121). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hewitt, Roger. (2005). White backlash and the politics of multiculturalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hood, C. (2010). The blame game: Spin, bureaucracy, and self-preservation in government. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huddy, L., Feldman, S., & Cassese, E. (2007). On the distinct political effects of anxiety and anger. In W. R. Neuman, G. E. Marcus, M. MacKuen, & A. N. Crigler (Eds.), The affect effect: Dynamics of emotion in political thinking and behavior (pp. 203–230). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Hutchison, E., & Bleiker, R. (2014). Theorizing emotions in world politics. International Theory, 6(3), 491–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Isen, A. M. (2001). An influence of positive affect on decision making in complex situations: Theoretical issues with practical implications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 11(2), 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Isen, A. M. (2010). Some ways in which positive affect influences decision making and problem solving. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman-Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 548–573). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Isen, A. M., & Geva, N. (1987). The influence of positive affect on acceptable level of risk: The person with a large canoe has a large worry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39, 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jacobs, A. M. (2011). Governing for the long term: Democracy and the politics of investment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascos. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  71. Johnson, E. J., & Tversky, A. (1983). Affect, generalization, and the perception of risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(1), 20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jones, B. D. (1994). Reconceiving decision-making in democratic politics: Attention, choice, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  73. Jones, B. D. (2001). Politics and the architecture of choice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  74. Jones, B. D., & Baumgartner, F. R. (2005). The politics of attention: How government prioritizes problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  75. Jones, B. D., Thomas, H. F, I. I. I., & Wolfe, M. (2014). Policy bubbles. Policy Studies Journal, 42(1), 146–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jones, B. D., & Wolfe, M. (2010). Public Policy and the Mass Media. In S. Koch-Baumgarten & K. Voltmer (Eds.), Public policy and mass media: The interplay of mass communication and political decision making (pp. 17–43). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  78. Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In T. Gilovic, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 49–81). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kingdon, J. W. (1995). Agendas, alternatives and public policies (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  80. Koger, S. M., & Winder, D. D. (2010). The psychology of environmental problems (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  81. Kuhn, T. (1977). The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Lang, P. J. (1995). The emotion probe: Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  86. Lichtenstein, S., Fischhoff, B., & Phillips, L. D. (1981). Calibration of probabilities: The state of the art to 1980. Eugene, Oregon: DTIC Document.Google Scholar
  87. Lodge, M., & Taber, C. S. (2013). The rationalizing voter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Loewenstein, G. F., Weber, E. U., Hsee, C. K., & Welch, N. (2001). Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 267–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lupia, A., McCubbins, M. D., & Popkin, S. L. (2000). Beyond rationality: Reason and the study of politics. In M. D. McCubbins & S. L. Popkin (Eds.), Elements of reason: Cognition, choice, and the bounds of rationality (pp. 1–20). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Maor, M. (2012). Policy overreaction. Journal of Public Policy, 32(3), 231–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Maor, M. (2014a). Policy persistence, risk estimation and policy underreaction. Policy Sciences, 47, 425–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Maor, M. (2014b). Policy bubbles: Policy overreaction and positive feedback. Governance, 27, 469–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Maor, M., & Gross, J. (2015, April). Emotion regulation by emotional entrepreneurs: Implications for political science and international relations. Paper presented at the 73rd annual MPSA conference, Chicago.Google Scholar
  94. Marcus, G. E. (2002). The sentimental citizen: Emotion in democratic politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Marcus, G. E., & MacKuen, M. (1993). Anxiety, enthusiasm, and the vote: The emotional underpinnings of learning and involvement during presidential campaigns. American Political Science Review, 87, 672–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Marcus, G. E., Neuman, W. R., & MacKuen, M. (2000). Affective intelligence and political judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Marcus, G. E., Sullivan, J. L., Theiss-Morse, E., & Wood, S. (1995). With malice toward some: How people make civil liberties judgments. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Martin, L. L. (2001). Mood as input: A configural view of mood effects. In L. L. Martin & G. L. Clore (Eds.), Theories of mood and cognition: A user’s guidebook (pp. 135–157). New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  99. McCombs, M. (2005). A look at agenda setting: Past, present and future. Journalism Studies, 6, 543–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Minsky, H. P. (1986). Stabilizing an unstable economy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Nadeau, R., Niemi, R. G., & Amato, T. (1995). Emotions, issue importance, and political learning. American Journal of Political Science, 39, 558–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nichols, E. (1989). Mobilizing against AIDS. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Niedenthal, P. M., & Brauer, M. (2012). Social functionality of human emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1983). Effects of public opinion on policy. American Political Science Review, 77, 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1992). The rational public: fifty years of trends in American’s policy preferences. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Perez, T. L., & Dionisopoulos, G. N. (2014). Presidential Silence, C. Everett Koop, and the surgeon general’s report on AIDS. Communication Studies, doi: 10.1080/10510979509368436.
  108. Peters, E. (2011). Affect and emotion. In Fischoff B., Brewer, N. T., & Downs, J. S. (Eds.), Communicating risks and benefits: An evidence-based user’s guide. MD: The food and drug administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, pp. 89–99.Google Scholar
  109. Peterson, G. (2006). Cultural Theory and Emotions. In J. E. Stets & J. H. Turner (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of emotions (pp. 114–134). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pierson, P. (2004). Politics in time: History, institutions, and social analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Quinn, D. P., & Toyoda, M. (2007). Ideology and voter sentiment as determinants of financial globalization. American Journal of Political Science, 51, 344–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rick, S., & Loewenstein, G. (2010). The role of emotion in economic behavior. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman-Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 138–158). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  113. Riker, W. (1980). Implications from the disequilibrium of majority rule for the study of institutions. American Political Science Review, 74, 432–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sabatier, P. A., & Jenkins-Smith, H. C. (1999). The advocacy coalition framework: An assessment. In P. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the policy process (pp. 117–168). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  115. Scharfstein, D. S., & Stein, J. C. (1990). Herd behavior and investment. The American Economic Review, 80, 465–479.Google Scholar
  116. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal process in emotion: Theory, methods, research. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Schnall, S., Haidt, J., Clore, G. L., & Jordan, A. H. (2008). Disgust as embodied moral judgment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1096–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schneider, A., & Ingram, H. (1993). Social construction of target populations: Implications for politics and policy. American Political Science Review, 87, 334–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schneider, A. L., & Ingram, H. (1997). Policy design for democracy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
  120. Schneider, A. L., Ingram, H., & de Leon, P. (2014). Democratic policy design: Social construction of target populations. In P. A. Sabatier & C. M. Weible (Eds.), Theories of the policy process (pp. 105–150). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  121. Schwartz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shiller, R. J. (2000). Measuring bubble expectations and investor confidence. The Journal of Psychology and Financial Markets, 1, 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shilts, R. (1988). And the band played on: Politics, people and the AIDS epidemic. New York: Martins Press.Google Scholar
  124. Simon, H. A. (1945). Administrative behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  125. Simon, H. A. (1983). Reason in human affairs. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Smith, E. R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 297–315). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  127. Smith, N. K., Cacioppo, J. T., Larsen, J. T., & Chatrand, T. L. (2003). May I have your attention, please: Electrocortical responses to positive and negative stimuli. Neuropsychologia, 41, 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2008). Intergroup emotions. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 428–439). Guilford: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  129. Sobran, J. (1986). The politics of AIDS. National Review, 51-2, May 23.Google Scholar
  130. Sornette, D., & Cauwels, P. (2014). Financial bubbles: Mechanisms and diagnostics. http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.2140. Accessed 17 December 2014.
  131. Soroka, S. N. (2002). Issue attributes and agenda setting by media, the public, and policymakers in Canada. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 14, 264–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Soroka, S. N. (2014). Negativity in democratic politics: Causes and consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stimson, J. A. (1999). Public opinion in America: Moods, cycles, and swings (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  134. Stone, D. (2011). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  135. Taylor, S. E. (1991). The asymmetrical impact of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Temoshok, L., Sweet, D. M., & Zich, J. (1986, March). A cross-cultural analysis of reaction to the AIDS epidemic. Paper presented at the meetings of the Society for Behavioral Medicine.Google Scholar
  137. Thomas, E. (1985). The new untouchable: Anxiety over aids is verging on hysteria in some parts of the country. Times, 9(23), 1985.Google Scholar
  138. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tversky, A., Slovic, P., & Kahneman, D. (1990). The causes of preference reversal. The American Economic Review, 80, 204–217.Google Scholar
  140. Valentino, N. A., Brader, T., Groenendyk, E. W., Gregorowicz, K., & Hutchings, V. L. (2011). Election night’s alright for fighting: The role of emotions in political participation. Journal of Politics, 73, 156–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Valentino, N. A., Hutchings, V. L., Banks, A. J., & Davis, A. K. (2008). Is a worried citizen a good citizen? Emotions, political information seeking, and learning via the internet. Political Psychology, 29, 247–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Weaver, R. K. (1986). The politics of blame avoidance. Journal of Public Policy, 6, 371–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wells, J. D., Hobfoll, S. E., & Lavin, J. (1999). When it rains, it pours: The greater impact of resource loss compared to gain on psychological distress. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1172–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wlezien, C. (1995). The public as thermostat: Dynamics of preferences for spending. American Journal of Political Science, 39, 981–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ybarra, O., & Stephan, W. G. (1996). Misanthropic person memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 691–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zadra, J. R., & Clore, G. L. (2011). Emotion and perception: The role of affective information. Wiley Interdisciplinary Review: Cognitive Science, 2, 676–685.Google Scholar
  147. Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inference. American Psychologist, 35, 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zajonc, R. B. (1984). The interaction of affect and cognition. In K. R. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 239–246). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceHebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations