Policy Sciences

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 237–256 | Cite as

Policy entrepreneurs and post-conflict cross-border cooperation: a conceptual framework and the Israeli–Jordanian case

Article

Abstract

What is the role of policy entrepreneurs in shaping the dynamics which normalize relationships between neighboring countries after the formal resolution of conflict? This article suggests a conceptual framework to understand the influence of policy entrepreneurs on public policy regarding cross-border interaction in post-conflict border regions. We analyze the motivations, preferences and strategies of local players which design given realities in the border region. We propose a typology of the various policy entrepreneurs active in the post-conflict border region. The theoretical framework is used in the analysis of the Israeli–Jordanian border region since the peace treaty of 1994.

Keywords

Policy entrepreneurship Borders Conflict Israeli–Arab conflict 

References

  1. Arieli, T. (2012). Borders of peace in policy and practice: National and local perspectives of Israel–Jordan border management. Geopolitics, 17(3), 658–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. The Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bar-Tal, D. (2000). From intractable conflict through conflict resolution to reconciliation: Psychological analysis. Political Psychology, 21(2), 351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clement, N., Ganster, P., & Sweedler, A. (1999). Development, environment and security in asymmetrical border regions: European and North American perspectives. In H. Eskelinen, I. Liikanen, & J. Oksa (Eds.), Curtains of iron and gold: Reconstructing borders and scales of interaction (pp. 243–281). Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  5. Cochrane, A., Peck, J., & Tickell, A. (1996). Manchester plays games: Exploring the local politics of globalization. Urban Studies, 33, 1319–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, N. (2012). Policy entrepreneurs and the design of public policy: Conceptual framework and the case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 3(1), 5–26.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, N., & Arieli, T. (2011). Field research in conflict environments: Methodological challenges and snowball sampling. Journal of Peace Research, 48(4), 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, N., & Ben-Porat, G. (2008). Business communities and peace: The cost-benefit calculations of political involvement. Peace and Change, 33(3), 426–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cooper, N. (2006). Peaceful warriors and warring peacemakers. The Economics of Peace and Security, 1(1), 20–23.Google Scholar
  10. Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6(3), 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenblatt, S. (1992). Marvellous possessions: The wonder of the new land. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hart, M. M., Stevenson, H. H., & Dial, J. (1995). Entrepreneurship: A definition revisited. In W. D. Bygrave, B. Bird, S. Birley, N. Churchill, M., R. Keeley, & W. Wetzel (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 75–89). Babson Park, Ms: Babson College.Google Scholar
  13. Henrikson, A. K. (2000). Facing across borders: The diplomacy of bon voisinage. International Political Science Review, 21(2), 121–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kardoosh, M. A., & al Khouri, R. (2004). Qualifying industrial zones and sustainable development in Jordan. In Post conflict reconstruction: Selected papers from the eleventh annual conference, Economic Research Forum (ERF), Cairo, Egypt, pp. 153–233.Google Scholar
  15. Kingdon, J. W. [1984] (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  16. Kriesberg, L. (1998). Constructive conflict: From escalation to resolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  17. Martínez, O. J. (1994). Border people: Life and society in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  18. Miller, B. (2005). When and how regions become peaceful: Potential theoretical pathways to peace. International Studies Review, 7(2), 229–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Minghi, J. V. (1991). From conflict to harmony in border landscapes. In D. Rumley & J. V. Minghi (Eds.), The geography of border landscapes (pp. 43–62). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Mintrom, M. (2000). Policy entrepreneurs and school choice. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Mintrom, M. (2006). Policy entrepreneurs, think tanks, and trusts. In R. Miller (Ed.), New Zealand government and politics (pp. 536–546). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mintrom, M., & Norman, P. (2009). Policy entrepreneurship and policy change. Policy Studies Journal, 37, 649–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mintrom, M., & Vergari, S. (1998). Policy networks and innovation diffusion: The case of state education reforms. Journal of Politics, 60, 126–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mishal, S., Kuperman, R. D., & Boas, D. (2001). Investment in peace: Politics of economic cooperation between Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority. Brighton, England: Sussex Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Munshi, K. (2007). From farming to international business: The social auspices of entrepreneurship in a growing economy. NBER Working Paper 13065. Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  26. Naudé, W. (2007). Peace, prosperity, and pro-growth entrepreneurship. Helsinki: United Nation University, discussion paper no. 2007/02.Google Scholar
  27. Newman, D. (2003). The lines that separate: Boundaries and borders in political geography. In J. A. Agnew, K. Mitchell, & G. Toal (Eds.), A companion to political geography (pp. 143–161). Malden, MA: Blackwell companions to geography, Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Perkmann, M. (2007). Policy entrepreneurship and multilevel governance: A comparative study of European cross-border regions. Environment and Planning, 25, 861–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Press-Barnathan, G. (2006). The neglected dimension of commercial liberalism: Economic cooperation and transition to peace. Journal of Peace Research, 43(3), 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Satloff, R. (1995). The Jordan–Israel peace treaty: A remarkable document. Middle East Quarterly, 2(1), 47–51.Google Scholar
  31. Schulpen, L., & Gibbon, P. (2002). Private sector development: Policies, practices and problems. World Development, 30(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scott, J. W. (1999). European and North American contexts for cross-border regionalism. Regional Studies, 33(7), 605–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shamir, S. (2004). IsraelJordan relations: Projects, economics and business. Tel Aviv University, University Institute for Diplomacy and Regional Cooperation (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  34. Smith, B. R., & Stevens, C. E. (2010). Different types of social entrepreneurship: The role of geography and embeddedness on the measurement and scaling of social value. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 22(6), 575–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Soffer, A. (1994). Forms of coexistance and transborder cooperation in a hostile area: The Israeli case. In W. A. Gallusser (Ed.), Political boundaries and coexistence, IGU symposium-Basle (pp. 182–191). Berne: Peter Lang inc.Google Scholar
  36. Treaty of Peace between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. October 26, 1994.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson, J. Q. (1980). The politics of regulation. In J. Q. Wilson (Ed.), The politics of regulation (pp. 319–336). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Newspapers

  1. Jordan Times.Google Scholar
  2. Haaretz Daily.Google Scholar

List of interviews

  1. Anonymous 1 (A Jordanian Businessman CEO, textile company), 18.01.2006.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous 2 (A Jordanian Businessman CEO, shipping company), 18.01.2006.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous 3 (A Jordanian Businessman, owner of a shoes factory), 18.01.2006.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous 4 (The Jordanian Al Haq Rachme farm manager), 28.01.2007.Google Scholar
  5. Abu Rashid, Manzur General (Ret.)—Chairman, Amman Center for Peace and Development, 19.12.2007.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Mughrabi, Salim—Head, Planning and EIA Section, ASEZA (Aqaba), 06.11.2008.Google Scholar
  7. Austin, J., Stevenson, H., Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both? Baylor University. http://www.neuroflow.ch/attachments/File/Social%20and%20Commercial%20Entrepreneurship.pdf.
  8. Aviel, Shaul—Barn Owl Project Manager, 22.11.2007.Google Scholar
  9. Avivi, Michal—Bet Shean Municipality, Spokeswoman, 06.12.2006.Google Scholar
  10. Bar, Gabi—Israel Industry and Commerce Ministry, QIZ coordinater, 02.05.2007.Google Scholar
  11. Baranes, Avi—Director, Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences of Eilat, 31.01.2007.Google Scholar
  12. Baker, Barakat—Field researcher, FoEME, Deir Allah, 29.11.2007.Google Scholar
  13. Bromberg, Gideon—General Director of Israeloffice, FoEME, 12.01.2009.Google Scholar
  14. Glickman, Yossi—former Director of Eilat District, Department of Construction, Israel Ministry of Security, 14.03.2007.Google Scholar
  15. Greenberg, Amnon—Director, Arava Research and Development Station, 28.01.2007.Google Scholar
  16. Israeli, Tuvia—Director of Jordan Department, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 01.03.2007.Google Scholar
  17. Khateeb, Nader—General Director of Palestine office, FoEME, 29.11.2007.Google Scholar
  18. Litvinoff, Dov—Mayer of Tamar regional council, 06.03.2007.Google Scholar
  19. Menuskin, Merri—former director of CIRC, 06.11.2006.Google Scholar
  20. Munqath, Mehyar—General Director of Jordan office, FoEME, 29.11.2007.Google Scholar
  21. Nicholls, A. (Ed.), (2006). Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Ouais, Qais—Director of North and Middle Ghors Department, Jordan Valley Authority, 06.12.2007.Google Scholar
  23. Piorko, Yuval—former head of Israel-Jordan Chamber of Commerce, 19.12.2006.Google Scholar
  24. Reiner, Shmuel-Rabbi—Male Gilboa Yeshiva (telephone conversation), 27.11.2008.Google Scholar
  25. Roberts, N. C., & King, P. J. (1991). Policy entrepreneurs: Their activity structure and function in the policy process. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 1, 147–175.Google Scholar
  26. Ron, Erez—former Project Director of “Economic Peace Corridor”, Vice Prime Minister’s Office, 10.03.2009.Google Scholar
  27. Roth, Lacey—Cleveland federation, (phone conversation and email), 14.03.2008.Google Scholar
  28. Sagive, Michal-Project Coordinator-Good Water Neighbors, FoEME, 09.11.2008.Google Scholar
  29. Samorai, Samo—Head, Department of Regional Cooperation, Eilat municipality, 05.11.2008.Google Scholar
  30. Schneider, M., & Teske, P. (1992). Toward a theory of the political entrepreneur: Evidence from local government. The American Political Science Review, 86, 737–747.Google Scholar
  31. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  32. Shatzberg, Ron—ECF project manager, 03.01.2007.Google Scholar
  33. Zaid, Ahuva-Skal, Red Sea Bay Club, 30.01.2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Administration & Policy, School of Political SciencesThe University of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Conflict Management ProgramTel Hai CollegeUpper GalileeIsrael

Personalised recommendations