De-centering environmental governance: A short history and analysis of democratic processes in the forest sector of Alberta, Canada
- 291 Downloads
This paper describes the emergence of a de-centered and privatized mode of governance in the Canadian forest sector. Using deliberative democratic theory as a descriptive foundation, it explores two key social facts that are arguably central to any historical analysis of this trend. First, increasing cultural pluralism challenges contemporary society to create new institutional arrangements that can incorporate a much larger, and often contested, array of public values into decision-making processes. Second, as management systems become more complex and science-driven, decision makers are finding it increasingly difficult to resolve issues of uncertainty and conflicting scientific evidence. De-centered forms of public participation provide important opportunities for government and industry to overcome these contemporary challenges, but certain side effects are also apparent. From the steering tactics of sponsoring agencies and corporations to the “ghettoizing” of environmental discourses, several implications are discussed.
KeywordsEnvironmental governance Deliberative democracy Public participation Small groups Public sphere Forest policy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aberta Council for Sustainable Communities and the Environment (ACSCE). (2003). Alberta Forest Community Coalition (AFCC). Home Page. Accessible at http://www.forestcommunity.ca/.
- Aberta Environmental Protection. (1992). Special Places 2000: Alberta’s Natural Heritage. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Environmental Protection.Google Scholar
- Aberta Environment. (2002). Integrated Resource Management in Alberta – A Thumbnail History. Accessible at http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/irm/docs/history.pdf.
- Aberta Wilderness Association (AWA). (2000). Alberta Falls Short of its Commitments. Accessible at http://albertawilderness.ca/News/NR2000/NR000705/NR000705_2.pdf.
- Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: towards a new modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Beierle, T. C., & Cayford, J. (2002). Democracy and practice: public participation in environmental decisions. Washington, DC: Resources for the future.Google Scholar
- Bohman, J. (1996). Public deliberation: pluralism, complexity and democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Brunner, R. D., Colburn, C. H., Cromley, C. M., Klein, R. A., & Olson, E. A. (2002). Finding common ground: Governance and natural resources in the American West. New Haven, CT: Yale.Google Scholar
- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM). (1995). Defining sustainable forest management: a Canadian approach to criteria and indicators. Ottawa: CCFM C&I Secretariat, natural resources Canada.Google Scholar
- Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM). (2003). Defining sustainable forest management in Canada. Ottawa: criteria and indicators 2003. CCFM C&I Secretariat, Natural Resources Canada.Google Scholar
- Canadian Standards Association (CSA). (2003). Z809-02. Sustainable forest management: requirements and guidance. Accessible at http://www.csa.ca/%5Crepository%5Cgroup%5CZ809-02july.pdf.
- Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition (CSFCC) (2005). Certification intentions in Canada. Accessible at http://www.sfms.com/status.htm#intentions.
- Carrow, R. (1999). Canada’s model forest program: Challenges for phase II. The forestry chronicle, 75, 73–80.Google Scholar
- Cashore, B., Auld, G., & Newsom, D. (2003). Governing through markets: forest certification and the emergence of non-state authority. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Christiansen-Ruffman, L., & Stuart, B. (1977). Actors and processes in citizen participation: negative aspects of reliance on professionals. in B. Sadler, ed., Involvement and environment (Volume 1). Edmonton, AB: Environment Council of Alberta.Google Scholar
- Dahl, R. (1989). Democracy and its critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Dorcey, A. H. J., & McDaniels, T. (2001). Great expectations, mixed results: trends in citizen involvement in canadian environmental governance. in E. A. Parson, ed., Governing the environment: persistent challenges, uncertain innovations. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Drushka, K. (2003). Canada’s forests: a history. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
- Dryzek, J., & Torgerson, D. (1993). Editorial: Democracy and the policy sciences: a progress report. Policy Sciences, 26, 127–137.Google Scholar
- Dryzek, J. S. (2000). Deliberative democracy and beyond: liberals, critics, contestations. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fischer, F. (2000). Citizens, experts, and the environment: the politics of local knowledge. Durham, SC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Forester, J., ed. (1985). Critical Theory and Public Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Fraser, N. (1992). Rethinking the public sphere: a contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In C. Calhoun, ed., Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Friedmann, J. (1973). Retracking America: a Theory of Transactive Planning. New York: Doubleday Anchor.Google Scholar
- Funtowicz, S., & Ravetz, J. R. (1985). Three types of risk assessment. in C. Whipple and V. T. Covello, eds., Risk Analysis in the Private Sector. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Gary, G. J., Enzer, M. J., & Kusel, J. eds. (2001). Understanding community-based forest ecosystem management. New York: Hawarth Press.Google Scholar
- Habermas, J. (1996). Between facts and norms: contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Hajer, M. A. (1995). The Politics of environmental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
- Kaga, M. (2002). Provincial regulation of natural resource exploitation. Canada-United States Law Journal 28, 357–368.Google Scholar
- Kuhn, T. S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Lash, J. (2002). People and ecosystems: the fraying web of life. Isuma, 3, 20–24.Google Scholar
- Lazar, A. (2003). The canadian forest products industry’s emerging industrial model of sustainability. The Forestry Chronicle, 79, 769–773.Google Scholar
- McCloskey, M. (1996). The skeptics: collaboration has its limits. High Country News 28.Google Scholar
- McFarlane, B. L., & Boxall, P. C. (2000). Forest values and attitudes of the public, environmentalists, professional foresters, and members of public advisory groups in Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-37. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre.Google Scholar
- McKenzie, J. I. (2002). Environmental Politics in Canada: managing the commons into the twenty-first century. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Murphy, P. (1992). Forestry Issues in Canada. Redovisning av seminarium den 11 maj 1992. Anordnat av Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien. Stockholm.Google Scholar
- Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2001). Re-thinking science: knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Parkins, J. (2002). Forest management and advisory groups in Alberta: an empirical critique of an emergent public sphere. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 27, 163–184.Google Scholar
- Parson, E. A. (2001). Environmental trends: a challenge to canadian governance. In E. A. Parson, ed., Governing the Environment: Persistent Challenges, Uncertain Innovations. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Pratt, L., & Urquhart, I. (1994). The last great forest: Japanese multinationals and Alberta’s Northern forests. Edmonton, AB: NeWest Press.Google Scholar
- Ribot, J. C. (2002). Democratic decentralization of natural resources: institutionalizing popular participation. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
- Richardson, M., Sherman, J. & Gismondi, M. (1993). Winning back the words: confronting experts in an environmental public hearing. Toronto: Garamond Press.Google Scholar
- Rousseau, A. H. (1996). Consensus-building and sustainable forest management in Canada. Stockholm, Sweden: intergovernmental workshop on sustainable forestry and land use: the process of consensus Building (14–18 October).Google Scholar
- Sadler, B. (1977). ‘Basic issues in public participation: a background perspective’, in B. Sadler, ed., Involvement and Environment (Volume 1). Edmonton, AB: Environment Council of Alberta.Google Scholar
- Schneider, R. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the Alberta forest conservation strategy? Encompass, 5, 9–13.Google Scholar
- Schneider, R. R. (2002). A history of industrial development in Northern Alberta: 1900–2000. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Centre for Boreal Studies.Google Scholar
- Senate Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest. (1999). Competing realities: the boreal forest at risk. Ottawa, ON: Subcommittee on the Boreal Forest of the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Forestry.Google Scholar
- Stefanick, L., & Wells, K. (2000). Alberta’s special places 2000: conservation, conflict, and the castle-crown wilderness. in S. Bocking, ed., Biodiversity in Canada: Ecology, Ideas and Action. Perterborough, ON: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
- Torgerson, D. (1999). The promise of green politics: environmentalism and the public sphere. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Urquhart, I. (2001). New players, same game? Managing the boreal forest on Canada’s prairies. in M. Howlett, ed., Canadian forest policy: adapting to change. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- van Vliet, M. (1993). Environmental regulation in business: options and constraints for communicative governance. in J. Kooiman, ed., Modern Governance: new Government-Society Interactions. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Wondolleck, J. M., & Yaffee, S. L. (2000). Making collaboration work: lessons from innovation in natural resource management. Washington, DC: Island.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (1996). The world bank participation sourcebook. Accessible at http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/sourcebook/sbhome.htm.
- Young, I. M. (2000). Inclusion and democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar