Ratcheting based on neighboring niches determines lifestyle

  • Ye Ye
  • Xiao Rong Hang
  • Jin Ming Koh
  • Jarosław Adam  Miszczak
  • Kang Hao CheongEmail author
  • Neng Gang XieEmail author
Original paper


In this paper, a co-evolution method of game dynamics and network structure is adopted to demonstrate that neighboring niches of an individual or population may have great influence in determining lifestyle adoption. The model encompasses network structure evolution, denoted CaseA, and pure games participated in by individuals in the network with two asymmetric branches determining winning and losing states, denoted Case B. The selection between game branches is dependent on the demographic of neighboring niches, and favorable or unfavorable effects from the neighborhood can be made to manifest by setting probabilistic game parameters. Theoretical analysis reveals that losing configurations of Case B, when stochastically mixed with neutral Case A, can result in paradoxical winning scenarios where the network experiences positive gain—a Parrondo’s paradox-like phenomenon has therefore emerged. It is elucidated that agitation from Case A increases the probability of individuals to play the favorable branch of Case B, leading to unexpected gains in two distinct parameter regimes. In the paradoxical regions, our analysis suggests strongly that neighboring niches are the cause for evolution toward social or solitary lifestyle behaviors, and we present important connections to real-world biological life.


Population dynamics Parrondo’s paradox Nonlinear dynamics Ratcheting Neighboring niches 



This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.11705002); Ministry of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences research projects (15YJCZH210; 19YJAZH098). KHC and JMK were supported by the SUTD Start-up Research Grant (SRG SCI 2019 142).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringAnhui University of TechnologyMa’anshanChina
  2. 2.School of Management Science and EngineeringAnhui University of TechnologyMa’anshanChina
  3. 3.Science and Math ClusterSingapore University of Technology and DesignSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Institute of Theoretical and Applied InformaticsPolish Academy of SciencesGliwicePoland

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