The aeroelastic behaviors of wing–pylon–store system have been researched for several decades. However, the effects of pylon–store system on the nonlinear aeroelastic characteristics of slender wings have not been sufficiently understood. In this paper, the nonlinear aeroelastic properties of a slender wing with a pylon–store system are discussed. The nonlinear equations of motion about the wing–pylon–store system are established, where the nonlinearities about the wing deformation and store motion are considered. The aerodynamic loads on the wing are determined by using two aerodynamic models with strip theory. One is the linear unsteady aerodynamic model based on Wagner function, the other is the nonlinear ONERA aerodynamic model. By comparing the nonlinear responses obtained with different aerodynamic models, it is found that the interaction between the aerodynamic nonlinearities induced by dynamic stall and the structural nonlinearities may simplify the bifurcation diagram structure of the system. For some typical cases of the wing–pylon–store system, the aeroelastic responses are analyzed. It is observed that the store-induced kinematic nonlinearities may affect the bending oscillation equilibrium position of the wing. This effect will be reduced by using soft spring in the pylon. Additionally, in the case of pylon with soft spring, the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) onset velocity and the post-critical response peak of torsional motion are insensitive to the store mass center position. But the post-critical response of store pitch is violent if the store mass center is not under the elastic center. In the case of pylon with hard spring, the post-critical response of store pitch becomes very complex. Though the response peak of the store is small, the LCO onset velocity changes obviously with the variation of the store mass center position. The store-related kinematics will play an important role on the nonlinear responses of the system in this situation.
Slender wing Pylon–store system Unsteady aerodynamic model Structural nonlinearities Dynamic stall Nonlinear aeroelastic response
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11472089).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Reed III, W.H., Foughner Jr., J.T., Runyan Jr., H.L.: Decoupler pylon: a simple, effective wing/store flutter suppressor. J. Aircraft. 17, 206–211 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desmarais, R.N., Reed III, W.H.: Wing/store flutter with nonlinear pylon stiffness. J. Aircraft. 18, 984–987 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lottati, I.: Aeroelastic tailoring of a composite wing with a decoupler pylon as a wing/store flutter suppressor. J. Aircraft. 25, 271–280 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padmanabhan, M.A., Pasiliao, C.L., Dowell, E.H.: Simulation of aeroelastic limit-cycle oscillations of aircraft wings with stores. AIAA J. 52, 2291–2299 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padmanabhan, M.A., Dowell, E.H.: Calculation of aeroelastic limit cycles due to localized nonlinearity and static preload. AIAA J. 55, 2762–2772 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, D., Dowell, E.H.: Experimental and theoretical study on aeroelastic response of high-aspect-ratio wings. AIAA J. 39, 1430–1441 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, D., Dowell, E.H.: Experimental and theoretical study of gust response for high-aspect-ratio wing. AIAA J. 40, 419–429 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, K., Strganac, T.: Nonlinear responses of a cantilever wing with an external store. In: 44th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural dynamics, and Materials Conference, pp. 3563–3571. Norfolk, Virgina (2003)Google Scholar
Crespo da Silva, M.R.M., Glynn, C.C.: Nonlinear flexural-flexural-torsional dynamics of inextensional beams. I. Equations of motion. J. Struct. Mech. 6, 437–448 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beran, P.S., Strganac, T.W., Kim, K., Nichkawde, C.: Studies of store-induced limit-cycle oscillations using a model with full system nonlinearities. Nonlinear Dyn. 37, 323–339 (2004)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
Abbas, L.K., Chen, Q., Marzocca, P., Milanese, A.: Non-linear aeroelastic investigations of store(s)-induced limit cycle oscillations. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G J. Aerosp. Eng. 222, 63–80 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arena, A., Lacarbonara, W., Marzocca, P.: Nonlinear aeroelastic formulation and postflutter analysis of flexible high-aspect-ratio wings. J. Aircraft. 50, 1748–1764 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, D., Attar, P., Dowell, E.H.: Flutter/limit cycle oscillation analysis and experiment for wing-store model. AIAA J. 44, 1662–1675 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, D., Dowell, E.H.: Flutter and limit-cycle oscillations for a wing-store model with freeplay. J. Aircraft. 43, 487–503 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tang, D., Dowell, E.H.: Aeroelastic analysis and experiment for wing/store model with stiction nonlinearity. J. Aircraft. 48, 1512–1530 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Padmanabhan, M.A., Dowell, E.H., Thomas, J.P., Pasiliao, C.L.: Store-induced limit-cycle oscillations due to nonlinear wing-store attachment. J. Aircraft. 53, 778–789 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pai, P.F., Nayfeh, A.H.: Three-dimensional nonlinear vibrations of composite beams—I. Equations of motion. Nonlinear Dyn. 1, 477–502 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freno, B.A., Cizmas, P.G.A.: A computationally efficient non-linear beam model. Int. J. Non Linear Mech. 46, 854–869 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, P.: Nonlinear stall flutter of wings with bending-torsion coupling. Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1991)Google Scholar
Dunn, P., Dugundji, J.: Nonlinear stall flutter and divergence analysis of cantilevered graphite/epoxy wings. AIAA J. 30, 153–162 (1992)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
Fung, Y.C.: An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity. Dover Publications Inc., Minela (1993)Google Scholar
Crespo da Silva, M.R.M.: Non-linear flexural–flexural–torsional–extensional dynamics of beams–I Formulation. Int. J. Solids Struct. 24, 1225–1234 (1988)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
Jones, R.T.: The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio. NACA report 681 (1940)Google Scholar
Lee, B.H.K., Gong, L., Wong, Y.S.: Analysis and computation of nonlinear dynamic response of a two-degree-of-freedom system and its application in aeroelasticity. J. Fluids Struct. 11, 225–246 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shams, S., Sadr Lahidjani, M.H., Haddadpour, H.: Nonlinear aeroelastic response of slender wings based on wagner function. Thin Wall Struct. 46, 1192–1203 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar