Optical vortices in the Ginzburg–Landau equation with cubic–quintic nonlinearity
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In a dissipative system with cubic–quintic nonlinearity, the curious evolution of optical vortex beams characterized by different topological charges (TCs) is simulated numerically and presented their evolution profiles. We find that new vortices will be induced during propagation, and the behavior of vortices, as affected by the TC and the number of beads of the incident beam, as well as its size, is also discussed. Common rules associated with the initial conditions coming from various incident beams are developed to determine the number of induced vortices and the corresponding rotation direction. Attributed to the nonlinearity, during propagation we see the beams slowly expand to induce new vortices, which commonly appear in oppositely charged pairs, while the net topological charge of the vortex is conserved. Our results not only deepen the understanding of optical vortices, but also widen their potential applications.
KeywordsOptical vortices Ginzburg–Landau equation Cubic–quintic nonlinearity
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC) (11674002, 11747046) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF) (2017M620300). Support from the 17A140003 Project of Henan Province Key University Science Research Fund is also acknowledged. The authors thank the reviewers’ illuminating comments to improve the article.