A general class of predation models with multiplicative Allee effect
A class of models of predator–prey interaction with Allee effect on the prey population is presented. Both the Allee effect and the functional response are modelled in the most simple way by means of general terms whose conveniently chosen mathematical properties agree with, and generalise, a number of concrete Leslie–Gower-type models. We show that this class of models is well posed in the sense that any realistic solution is bounded and remains non-negative. By means of topological equivalences and desingularization techniques, we find specific conditions such that there may be extinction of both species. In particular, the local basin boundaries of the origin are found explicitly, which enables one to determine the extinction or survival of species for any given initial condition near this equilibrium point. Furthermore, we give conditions such that an equilibrium point corresponding to a positive steady state may undergo saddle-node, Hopf and Bogdanov–Takens bifurcations. As a consequence, we are able to describe the dynamics governed by the bifurcated limit cycles and homoclinic orbits by means of carefully sketched bifurcation diagrams and suitable illustrations of the relevant invariant manifolds involved in the overall organisation of the phase plane. Finally, these findings are applied to concrete model vector fields; in each case, the particular relevant functions that define the conditions for the associated bifurcations are calculated explicitly.
KeywordsPredator–prey model Allee effect Bifurcation analysis
This work was partially funded by FONDECYT Postdoctoral Grant No. 3130497, DGIP-UTFSM Grant 12.13.10 and Proyecto Basal CMM Universidad de Chile.
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