Natural Hazards

, Volume 93, Issue 3, pp 1251–1275 | Cite as

Empirical seismic vulnerability, deterministic risk and monetary loss assessment in Fira (Santorini, Greece)

  • D. Kazantzidou-Firtinidou
  • I. Kassaras
  • A. Ganas
Original Paper


A deterministic seismic risk and monetary loss model is presented for the capital of Santorini volcanic Island, the town of Fira, on a building block scale. A local seismic source of M5.6 inferred from a recent volcano unrest in 2011–2012, detailed seismic vulnerability of 435 buildings and site conditions deduced from free-field ambient noise measurements were combined toward assessing the EMS-98 damage grade and its probability to occur. The seismic scenario yielded no damage or slight damage for 84% of the buildings, 16% of the constructions are expected to present moderate-to-heavy damage, while the economic loss amounts to 4 million euros. Although the model predicts low damage and direct economic loss, interaction with the touristic business activities might produce cascade side effects for the economy of the island and consequently Greece’s GDP, an important part of which emanates from Santorini.


Santorini EMS-98 HVSR Seismic risk Building typologies Seismic vulnerability Monetary loss 



The study has been realized in the framework of the project RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation of Risk), funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program for research, technological development and demonstration under Grant Agreement No. 606888. The exposure model of Fira has been implemented in the RASOR platform (; The authors wish to deeply thank K. Makropoulos, G. Papadopoulos, N. Zorzos, P. Bozineki-Didoni, P. Pelekanos, A.Pomonis for discussions, S. Mourloukos for field work and C. Tsimi for helping in the spatial data analysis. We are indebted to the stuff of the Technical Services department of the Fira municipality for helping us in the field. We acknowledge support by the project “HELPOS - Hellenic System for Lithosphere Monitoring” (MIS 5002697).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.National Observatory of AthensAthensGreece

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