Natural Hazards

, Volume 93, Issue 2, pp 1029–1047 | Cite as

Hazard evaluation of progressive Pawari landslide zone, Satluj valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

  • Vipin Kumar
  • Vikram Gupta
  • Imlirenla Jamir
Original Paper


The Pawari landslide zone, located in the Satluj valley, Himachal Pradesh (India), is a progressive complex landslide zone that is ~ 900 m long and ~ 4000 m wide and encompasses an area of ~ 6 km2. It is observed that the frequency of the slope failure in the landslide zone and dimension of the landslide area have increased considerably in the last decade that pose threat to the human population of about 6000 residing in the vicinity of the landslide zone. The finite element method (FEM) and kinematic analysis are used for stability analyses, while high-resolution imagery, slope failure data and rain-gauge-based rainfall data are used to infer landslide activity. The FEM analysis involved numerical simulation of two slope models, i.e. S-1 (rockmass only) and S-2 (rockmass overlain by debris) that were chosen along the width of the landslide zone. The shear strength reduction method was incorporated in FEM to quantify the existing slope strength and to infer pattern of strain and displacement. The analyses results show that the main scarp of the landslide zone has increased ~ 7% between 2005 and 2014, and presently, major as well as minor scarps accommodate maximum shear strain (0.001–0.006) and displacement (0.08–0.20 m). The kinematic analysis reveals wedge failure in the rockmass that corroborates with the field evidences of rock failure. The present work intends to evaluate the hazard of landslide zone by analysing landslide activity pattern and determining shear strain and displacement of the slope.


Pawari landslide Satluj valley Finite element method Higher Himalaya 



The Authors are thankful to the Director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), Dehradun for all the necessary facilities to carry out the work. The soil and rock testings were carried out in Geotechnical laboratory of the WIHG and National Geotechnical Facility (NGF), Dehradun. The authors are also thankful to the Reckong Peo District administration and BRO (Pawari) for the help rendered during the field work. Authors acknowledge the Editor in Chief, Dr. Thomas Glade and anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped to improve the manuscript. The study forms a part of doctoral (Ph.D.) work of Vipin Kumar.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehradunIndia
  2. 2.HNB Garhwal UniversitySrinagarIndia
  3. 3.Nagaland UniversityMeriemaIndia

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