Natural Hazards

, Volume 93, Issue 2, pp 559–576 | Cite as

Flood prediction and mitigation in coastal tourism areas, a case study: Hurghada, Egypt

  • Hany F. Abd-Elhamid
  • Ismail Fathy
  • Martina ZeleňákováEmail author
Original Paper


Flood mitigation involves the management and control of floodwater movement, such as redirecting flood runoff through the use of floodwalls and flood gates, rather than trying to prevent floods altogether. The prevention and mitigation of flooding can be studied on three levels: on individual properties, small communities, and whole towns or cities. The current study area is located in Hurghada on the Red Sea, which is considered an important area for coastal tourism. The study area is located at distance 7.50 km from El Gouna city along the Red Sea and east of Hurghada–Al Ismaileya road. The aim of this research is to derive the runoff flow paths across the study area and their flow magnitudes under different rainfall events of 10, 25, 50, and 100 year return periods in order to design the flood mitigation measures to protect such important areas. Field data (e.g., topographic data and rainfall intensities) were collected for the study area. The results indicated that the site is exposed to high flash flood risk and protection work is required. In order to protect the area from flood risks, locations of number of drainage channels and dams were selected and designed based on flood quantity and direction. The proposed mitigation system is capable of protecting this crucial area from flood risks and increases the national income from tourism. This study can be applied in different areas of Egypt and the world.


Flash flood Flood protection Drainage channels Dams Red Sea coast 


  1. Agirre U, Goñi M, López J, Gimena F (2005) Application of a unit hydrograph based on sub watershed division and comparison with Nash’s instantaneous unit hydrograph. CATENA 64(1):321–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Ghamdi K, Mirza M, Elzahrany R, Dawod G (2012) GIS evaluation of urban growth and flood hazards: a case study of Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. In: International federation of surveyors (FIG) Working Week 2012 conference, knowing to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Momani A, Shawaqfah M (2013) Assessment and management of flood risks at the city of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Holist Approach Environ 3(1):15–31Google Scholar
  4. Chow VT, Maidment DR, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Cojoc G, Romanescu G, Tirnovan A (2015) Exceptional floods on a developed river. Case study for the Bistrita River from the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). Nat Hazards 77(3):1421–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dawod G, Al-Ghamdi K, Mirza M, Elzahrany R (2014) Projected impacts of land use and road network changes on increasing flood hazards using a 4D GIS: a case study in Makkah metropolitan area, Saudi Arabia. Arab J Geosci 7(1):1139–1156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elquliti S, Alfalatah S, Alghamdi M, Alabdali Y, Alrowaily A (2016) Impact analysis for flooding area in Saudi Arabia. Int J Sci Tech Res Eng (IJSTRE) 1(2):200–220Google Scholar
  8. Garambois P, Larnier K, Roux H, Labat D, Dartus D (2014) Analysis of flash flood-triggering rainfall for a process-oriented hydrological model. Atmos Res 137(1):14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jean C, Marco B, Eve G, Celine L, Davide Z, Isabelle R (2014) A space and time framework for analyzing human anticipation of flash floods. J Hydrol 482(1):14–24Google Scholar
  10. Jorge G, Jeffrey N, Larry R, Fabrice R, Hervé A (2009) A morpho-climatic instantaneous unit hydrograph model for urban catchments based on the kinematic wave approximation. J Hydrol 377(1):317–334Google Scholar
  11. Luís V, José P, Dirk S, Bárbara V (2014) Towards a decision support system for flood management in a river basin. In: 11th international conference on hydro informatics, HIC 2014, New York City, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Marco B, Markus S, Lorenzo M, Francesco M, Matthias J (2014) Hydrogeomorphic response to extreme rainfall in headwater systems: flash floods and debris flows. J Hydrol 482(1):73–85Google Scholar
  13. Maruša Š, Jonathan G, Celine L, Pierre K, Mitja B, Nicholas C (2014) Analysis of flash flood parameters and human impacts in the US from 2006 to 2012. J Hydrol 482(1):11–21Google Scholar
  14. Murari P, Nelson J, Scharffenberg W (2009) Comparison of lumped and quasi distributed Clark runoff models using the SCS curve number equation. J Hydrol Eng 14(10):1098–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pérez-Morales A, Gil-Guirado S, Olcina-Cantos J (2018) Housing bubbles and the increase of flood exposure. Failures in flood risk management on the Spanish south-eastern coast (1975–2013). J Flood Risk Manag 11(1):S302–S313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sen Z (2008) Wadi hydrology. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Shaheen H, Jayyousi1 A, Shadeed S, Jarrar A, (2005) Hydrograph estimation in semiarid regions using GIS supported GIUH model. In: Ninth international water technology conference, IWTC9, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, pp 371–380Google Scholar
  18. Subyani A, Al-Modayan A (2011) Flood Analysis in Western Saudi Arabia. JAKU Earth Sci 22(2):17–36. Google Scholar
  19. US TDoT (US Texas Department of Transportation) (2009) Hydraulic design manualGoogle Scholar
  20. Youssef A, Pradhan B, Sefry S (2016) Flash flood susceptibility assessment in Jeddah city (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) using bivariate and multivariate statistical models. Environ Earth Sci 75(1):12–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringTechnical University of KošiceKošiceSlovakia

Personalised recommendations