Natural Hazards

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 93–130 | Cite as

Assessment of flood inundation mapping of Surat city by coupled 1D/2D hydrodynamic modeling: a case application of the new HEC-RAS 5

  • Dhruvesh P. PatelEmail author
  • Jorge A. Ramirez
  • Prashant K. Srivastava
  • Michaela Bray
  • Dawei Han
Original Paper


Surat city of India, situated 100 km downstream of Ukai Dam and 19.4 km upstream from the mouth of River Tapi, has experienced the largest flood in 2006. The peak discharge of about 25,770 m3 s−1 released from the Ukai Dam was responsible for a disaster. To assess the flood and find inundation in low-lying areas, simulation work is carried out under the 1D/2D couple hydrodynamic modeling. Two hundred ninety-nine cross sections, two hydraulic structures and five major bridges across the river are considered for 1D modeling, whereas a topographic map at 0.5 m contour interval was used to produce a 5 m grid, and SRTM (30 and 90 m) grid has been considered for Surat and the Lower Tapi Basin. The tidal level at the river mouth and the release from the Ukai Dam during 2006 flood are considered as the downstream and upstream boundaries, respectively. The model is simulated under the unsteady flow condition and validated for the year 2006. The simulated result shows that 9th August was the worst day in terms of flooding for Surat city and a maximum 75–77% area was under inundation. Out of seven zones, the west zone had the deepest flood and inundated under 4–5 m. Furthermore, inundation is simulated under the bank protection work (i.e., levees, retaining wall) constructed after the 2006 flood. The simulated results show that the major zones are safe against the inundation under 14,430 m3 s−1 water releases from Ukai Dam except for the west zone. The study shows the 2D capability of new HEC-RAS 5 for flood inundation mapping and management studies.


Flood Inundation Levees HEC-RAS Lower Tapi Basin 

List of symbols


Courant number




Coriolis (s−1)


Acceleration due to gravity (m s−2)


Water depth (m)


Left bank (u/s of Singanpur weir)


Left bank (d/s of Singanpur weir)


Manning’s roughness coefficient

p and q

Flow in the x an y direction (m2 s−1)




Right bank (u/s of Singanpur weir)


Right bank (d/s of Singanpur weir)




Computational time step(s)


Flood wave velocity (m s−1)


Average cell size (m)


Surface elevation (m)


Water density (kg m−3)

τxx, τyy andτxy

Components of the effective shear stress



The first author would like to express his sincere thanks to Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), DST, for providing the International Travel Support (ITS) under the ‘Young Scientist’ grant and equal thanks to Prof. M. B. Dholakia, Professor of Civil Engineering, LDCE, and Mr. N. Naresh for useful support. The authors would like to thank Bhaskaracharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS and LUP), National Resources Information System, Survey of India (SOI), Central Water Commission (CWC), Surat Irrigation Circle (SIC) and Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) of Surat district for providing necessary data, facilities and support during the study period. The authors are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive technical comments in improving the overall quality of the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

First author has received the International Travel Support (ITS) under the ‘Young Scientist’ Programme from Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), for attending the international conference. Grant No. SB/ITS-Y/02883/13-14.

Supplementary material

11069_2017_2956_MOESM1_ESM.doc (27 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhruvesh P. Patel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jorge A. Ramirez
    • 2
  • Prashant K. Srivastava
    • 3
  • Michaela Bray
    • 4
  • Dawei Han
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, School of TechnologyPandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU)Raisan, GandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.Institute of GeographyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  4. 4.School of EngineeringCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  5. 5.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BristolBristolUK

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