Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 86, Issue 1, pp 411–436 | Cite as

Disaster risk perception in urban contexts and for people with disabilities: case study on the city of Iquique (Chile)

  • Carmen-Paz CastroEmail author
  • Juan-Pablo Sarmiento
  • Rosita Edwards
  • Gabriela Hoberman
  • Katherine Wyndham
Original Paper

Abstract

About 15% of the world’s population suffers from some kind of disability. In addition to experiencing high rates of poverty, exclusion and lack of access to education, employment, health care, legal support and other services, individuals with disabilities are disproportionately affected by disasters, recording a mortality rate two to four times higher than that of people without disabilities. These facts are not reflected in information surveys used in planning for disaster risk management in urban contexts. This study proposes an approach to characterize the population with disabilities within a risk perception framework using the city of Iquique, in northern Chile, as a case study. This research encompasses the following stages: first, a review of the social risk perception approach; second, a determination of exposure to natural hazards; third, the sample selection, survey design and implementation; fourth, the generation of four indices: (1) the overall or generic risk perception index; (2) the specific index for each of the identified hazards; (3) the anticipated behavior index; and (4) the local risk management index; and finally, the statistical analysis of the indices and the selected independent variables, emphasizing the disability factor. The study allowed us to estimate Iquique’s population with disabilities, the types of disabilities present and the characteristics of families with disabled members. Risk perception and disabled people represent new issues with high social value and deserve more attention from research, planning and response agencies.

Keywords

Risk perception Disaster Urban Disability Earthquake Tsunami 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Leonardo Muñoz Gómez, Instructor, Department of Geography, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of Chile, for his contribution in the statistical analysis and interpretation of results. The authors also thank Teresa Cole for her assistance in preparing the final version of the manuscript. This material is based on work supported by the National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT) Prize # 1130259, and the Inter and Transdisciplinary Initiatives Support Program, FIT VID 2015, University of Chile. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, express or implied, of the Government of Chile.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This manuscript is an original work, which has not been previously published, whole or in part, and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The authors declare that they do not have actual or potential competing financial interest regarding the submitted manuscript. The authors agree that the work is ready for submission to the journal and accept responsibility for the manuscript’s contents.

References

  1. Ajibade I, McBean G, Bezner-Kerr R (2013) Urban flooding in Lagos, Nigeria: patterns of vulnerability and resilience among women. Glob Environ Change 23(6):1714–1725. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.08.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich N, Benson WF (2008) Disaster preparedness and the chronic disease needs of vulnerable older adults. Prev Chronic Dis 5(1):A27Google Scholar
  3. Aneas de Castro S (2000) Riesgos y peligros: una visión desde la geografía. SCR NOVA 4:60Google Scholar
  4. Anton CE, Lawrence C (2014) Home is where the heart is: the effect of place of residence on place attachment and community participation. J Environ Psychol 40:451–461. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azad AK, Hossain KM, Nasreen M (2013) Flood-induced vulnerabilities and problems encountered by women in northern Bangladesh. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 4(4):190–199. doi: 10.1007/s13753-013-0020-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bird D, Dominey-Howes D (2008) Testing the use of a “questionnaire survey instrument” to investigate public perceptions of tsunami hazard and risk in Sydney, Australia. Nat Hazards 45(1):99–122. doi: 10.1007/s11069-007-9172-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birkmann J, Welle T, Krause D, Wolfertz J, Suarez DC, Setiadi N (2011) In: Alliance Development Works (eds) WorldRiskIndex: concept and results. Berlin, pp. 13–42Google Scholar
  8. Blaikie PM, Cannon T, Davies I, Wisner B (eds) (1994) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters. Routledge, London; New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonaiuto M, Alves S, De Dominicis S, Petruccelli I (2016) Place attachment and natural hazard risk: research review and agenda. J Environ Psychol 48:33–53. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burby RJ, Deyle RE, Godschalk DR, Olshansky RB (2000) Creating hazard resilient communities through land-use planning. Nat Hazards Rev 1(2):99–106. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2000)1:2(99) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burton I, Kates R, White G (1968) The human ecology of extreme geophysical events. FMHI Publications, 78. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/fmhi_pub/78
  12. Cárdenas E (2008) La percepción social del riesgo, lo contingente y lo indeterminado: El caso de los huracanes y suicidios en Quintana Roo. Presented at the X Coloquio Internacional de Geocritica, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardona OD (2005a) Sistema de indicadores para la gestión del riesgo de desastre: Programa para América Latina y el Caribe: Informe técnico principal, p 234. Colombia: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Instituto de Estudios Ambientales (IDEA); Inter-American Development Bank. Sustainable Development DepartmentGoogle Scholar
  14. Cardona OD (2005b) Indicators of disaster risk and risk management—main technical report. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Cardona OD (2008) Medición de la gestión del riesgo en América Latina. Revista Internacional de Sostenibilidad, Tecnología Y Humanismo 3:1–20Google Scholar
  16. CASEN (2016) Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional (CASEN) del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social para el periodo 2003–2009. http://reportescomunales.bcn.cl/index.php/Iquique#.C3.8Dndice_de_allegamiento_de_hogares_CASEN_2003-2009
  17. Castro CP, Ibarra I, Lukas M, Ortiz J, Sarmiento JP (2015) Disaster risk construction in the progressive consolidation of informal settlements: Iquique and Puerto Montt (Chile) case studies. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 13:109–127. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Castro CP, Sarmiento JP, Garuti C (2016) Disaster risk assessment developing a perceived comprehensive disaster risk index: the cases of three Chilean cities. In: De Felice F, Saaty TL, Petrillo A (eds) Applications and theory of analytic hierarchy process—decision making for strategic decisions. InTech. http://www.intechopen.com/books/applications-and-theory-of-analytic-hierarchy-process-decision-making-for-strategic-decisions/disaster-risk-assessment-developing-a-perceived-comprehensive-disaster-risk-index-the-cases-of-three
  19. Cid Ortiz G, Castro Correa C, Rugiero de Souza V (2012) Percepción del riesgo en relación con capacidades de autoprotección y autogestión, como elementos relevantes en la reducción de la vulnerabilidad en la ciudad de La Serena. Revista INVI 27(75):105–142. doi: 10.4067/S0718-83582012000200004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chardon AC (2002) Un enfoque geográfico de la vulnerabilidad en zonas expuestas a amenazas naturales. El ejemplo andino de Manizales, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Cutter SL, Emrich C (2006) Moral hazard, social catastrophe: the changing face of vulnerability along the Hurricane Coasts. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 604(1):102–112. doi: 10.1177/0002716205285515 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards*. Soc Sci Q 84(2):242–261. doi: 10.1111/1540-6237.8402002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, Webb J (2008) A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Glob Environ Change 18(4):598–606. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cutter SL, Burton CG, Emrich CT (2010) Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. J Homel Secur Emerg Manage. doi: 10.2202/1547-7355.1732 Google Scholar
  25. Dibben C, Chester DK (1999) Human vulnerability in volcanic environments: the case of Furnas, São Miguel, Azores. J Volcanol Geoth Res 92(1–2):133–150. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00072-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dominey-Howes D, Minos-Minopoulos D (2004) Perceptions of hazard and risk on Santorini. J Volcanol Geoth Res 137(4):285–310. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Donner W, Rodriguez H (2008) Population composition, migration and inequality: the influence of demographic changes on disaster risk and vulnerability. Soc Forces 87(2):1089–1114. doi: 10.1353/sof.0.0141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Douglas M (1985) Risk acceptability according to the social sciences. Russell Sage Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Esteban M, Tsimopoulou V, Mikami T, Yun NY, Suppasri A, Shibayama T (2013) Recent tsunamis events and preparedness: development of tsunami awareness in Indonesia, Chile and Japan. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 5:84–97. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. European Emergency Number Association (2007) The Verona charter on the rescue of persons with disabilities in case of disasters. http://www.eena.org/ressource/static/files/Verona%20Charter%20approved.pdf
  31. Gellert De Pinto G (2012) El cambio de paradigma: de la atención de desastres a la gestión del riesgo. Boletín Científico Sapiens Research 2:13–17Google Scholar
  32. Godschalk DR (2007) Functions and phases of emergency management. In: Waugh WL, Tierney K (eds) Emergency management: principles and practice for local government. International City Managers Association, Washington, DC, pp 87–112Google Scholar
  33. Greenberg M (2013) We need risk communication and perception research focused on flood risks for senior citizens: research flood risks for senior citizens. Risk Anal 33(1):52–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01940.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gregg C, Houghton B, Johnston D, Paton D, Swanson D (2004) The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai’i. J Volcanol Geoth Res 130(3–4):179–196. doi: 10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00288-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Holcombe E, Anderson M, Holm-Nielsen N (2013) Learning by doing: community based landslide risk reduction. In Margottini C, Canuti P, Sassa K (eds) Landslide science and practice. Springer, Berlin, pp 297–302. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31313-4_39
  36. IDA-IDDC (2016) Statement on disability and disasters: open working group, January 10, 2014. International Disability Alliance (IDA) and International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC). https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/getWSDoc.php?id=2728
  37. Ittelson WH (1978) Environmental perception and urban experience. Environ Behav 10(2):193–213. doi: 10.1177/0013916578102004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kailes JI, Enders A (2007) Moving beyond “special needs”: a function-based framework for emergency management and planning. J Disabil Policy Stud 17(4):230–237. doi: 10.1177/10442073070170040601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mayunga J (2007) Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: a capital-based approach. Summer Acad Soc Vulnerability Resil Build 1:16Google Scholar
  40. Mendoza P (2005) Percepción del riesgo en una región de pobreza, escenario sierra: los deslizamientos en Huancavelica (No. 2). http://www.minsa.gob.pe/ogdn/cd1/pdf/ELAS_05/doc50.pdf
  41. Mileti D (1999) Disaster by design: a reassessment of natural hazards in the United States. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Morrow BH (2008) Community resilience: a social justice perspective. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1278.9604
  43. NEADS (2016) Making extra-curricular activities inclusive—persons with disabilities.” National Educational Association of Disabled Students. http://www.neads.ca/en/about/projects/inclusion/guide/pwd_01.php
  44. Norris FH, Stevens SP, Pfefferbaum B, Wyche KF, Pfefferbaum RL (2008) Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. Am J Community Psychol 41(1–2):127–150. doi: 10.1007/s10464-007-9156-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Okada N (2004) Urban diagnosis and integrated disaster risk management. J Nat Disaster Sci 26(2):49–54Google Scholar
  46. Rooney C, White GW (2007) Consumer perspective narrative analysis of a disaster preparedness and emergency response survey from persons with mobility impairments. J Disabil Policy Stud 17(4):206–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rumbach A, Shirgaokar M (2016) Predictors of household exposure to monsoon rain hazards in informal settlements. Nat Hazards. doi: 10.1007/s11069-016-2599-z Google Scholar
  48. Sam AS, Kumar R, Kächele H, Müller K (2016) Quantifying household vulnerability triggered by drought: evidence from rural India. Clim Dev. doi: 10.1080/17565529.2016.1193461 Google Scholar
  49. Sjöberg L (2000) Factors in risk perception. Risk Anal 20(1):1–12. doi: 10.1111/0272-4332.00001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sjöberg L (2003) The different dynamics of personal and general risk. Risk Manag 5(3):19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Slovic P (2000) The perception of risk. Earthscan Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Sorensen JH (1991) Workshop on socioeconomic aspects of disasters in Latin America. Warning systems and public warning response. San José, pp 21–23Google Scholar
  53. Stephenson RS (1994) Disaster assessment, 2nd edn. Disaster Management Training Programme, UNDPGoogle Scholar
  54. Stough LM, Kang D (2015) The Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction and persons with disabilities. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 6(2):140–149. doi: 10.1007/s13753-015-0051-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Thompson M, Ellis R, Wildavsky AB (1990) Cultural theory. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  56. Tierney KJ, Lindell MK, Perry RW (2001) Facing the unexpected: disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=4388308
  57. Tobin GA, Whiteford LM (2002) Community resilience and volcano hazard: the eruption of Tungurahua and evacuation of the faldas in Ecuador. Disasters 26(1):28–48. doi: 10.1111/1467-7717.00189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ulleberg P, Rundmo T (2002) Risk-taking attitudes among young drivers: the psychometric qualities and dimensionality of an instrument to measure young drivers’ risk-taking attitudes. Scand J Psychol 43(3):227–237. doi: 10.1111/1467-9450.00291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. UN (2016) Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml
  60. UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific) (2012) Incheon strategy: 10 goals to make the right real for persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific. http://www.unescapsdd.org/files/documents/PUB_Incheon-Strategy-EN.pdf
  61. Wachinger G, Renn O, Begg C, Kuhlicke C (2013) the risk perception paradox-implications for governance and communication of natural hazards: the risk perception paradox. Risk Anal 33(6):1049–1065. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01942.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wilches-Chaux G (1998) Auge, caída y levantada de Felipe Pinillo, mecánico y soldador o yo voy a correr el riesgo: Guía de La Red para la gestión local del riesgo. Red de Estudios Sociales en Prevención de Desastres en América Latina, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  63. World Health Organization, World Bank (eds) (2011) World report on disability. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de GeografíaUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Extreme Events InstituteFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Extreme Events InstituteFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations