Natural Hazards

, Volume 83, Supplement 1, pp 97–116 | Cite as

Investigation of ionospheric TEC precursors related to the M7.8 Nepal and M8.3 Chile earthquakes in 2015 based on spectral and statistical analysis

  • Christina OikonomouEmail author
  • Haris Haralambous
  • Buldan Muslim
Original Paper


Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations prior to 2 large earthquakes in Nepal (M = 7.8) and Chile (M = 8.3) in 2015 were analyzed using measurements from global navigation satellite system network with the aim to detect possible ionospheric anomalies associated to these seismic events and describe their main features, by applying statistical and spectral analysis. It was shown that abnormal TEC variations appeared few days up to few hours before the events lasting up to 8 h, whereas intensified TEC wave-like oscillations with periods 20 and 2–5 min were also identified that could be linked to the impending earthquakes. An unusual modification of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly 5 days before the main shock was also detected. Spectral analysis on TEC satellite measurements proved an effective method for the discrimination between seismically induced ionospheric waves and those of different origin such as the solar terminator transition and geomagnetic storms.


Ionospheric earthquake precursors Total electron content (TEC) Spectral analysis Equatorial anomaly Solar terminator 



This paper is funded by the project investigation of earthquake signatures on the ionosphere over Europe-ΔΙΑΚΡΑΤΙΚΕΣ/ΚY-ΡΟY/0713/37which is co-financed by the Republic of Cyprus and the European Regional Development Fund (through the ΔΕΣΜΗ 2009–2010 of the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina Oikonomou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Haris Haralambous
    • 1
  • Buldan Muslim
    • 2
  1. 1.Frederick Research CenterNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Space Science CenterIndonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and SpaceBandungIndonesia

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