Natural Hazards

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 273–292 | Cite as

Effects of volume on travel distance of mass movements triggered by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, in the Northeast Himalayas of Pakistan

  • Muhammad BasharatEmail author
  • Joachim Rohn
Original Paper


The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) generated widespread mass movements in the Northeast Himalayas of Pakistan. The mass movements were mainly catastrophic rock avalanches, rockslides, rockfalls and debris falls, ranging in volume from a few hundred cubic meters to hundreds of million cubic meters. Data of 103 mass movement events were collected during field surveys to characterize each event. The mass movements and their travel distances were analyzed, using empirical models, widely adopted in the literature. The empirical approaches were used to analyze the relationships between geometrical parameters like volume, Fahrböschung angle, fall height, surface area, travel path and travel distance. The mobility of mass movements was expressed as the ratio between the height of fall and travel distance as function of volume. The volume was estimated by multiplying the deposit area by average thickness. The Fahrböschung angle showed a decreasing tendency with increasing mass movement volume. In addition, the Fahrböschung angle of mass movements with small volumes was more variable. A strongly correlated linear trend exists between the height of fall and travel distance for all types of the mass movement. Moreover, a weak correlation was found between unconfined and partly confined travel path. The empirical results of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake data are consistent with the previously published data from other parts of the world.


Mass movement Kashmir earthquake Volume Travel distance Fahrböschung angle 



We would like to acknowledge the University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, which has funded the research under Faculty Development Programme. We would also like to acknowledge Director, Institute of Geology, for providing transportation during field work. We offer our special thanks to anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeologyUniversity of Azad Jammu and KashmirMuzaffarabadPakistan
  2. 2.GeoZentrum NordbayernFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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