Advertisement

Natural Hazards

, Volume 75, Issue 1, pp 727–754 | Cite as

Dynamics of disaster-induced risk in southwestern coastal Bangladesh: an analysis on tropical Cyclone Aila 2009

  • Choyon Kumar Saha
Original Paper

Abstract

The present article explores the dynamics of disaster-induced risk resulted from tropical Cyclone Aila that struck southwestern coastal residents on May 25, 2009, causing 190 deaths and affecting over 3.9 million with 243,000 houses and destroying 77,000 acres of farmland. This study assesses disaster risk by using basic pseudo-equation expressed as Risk = Hazard × Vulnerability, and explores the influences of various socioeconomic, environmental, institutional and geographical factors on escalating disaster risk. Following stratified purposive sampling techniques, a total of fourteen focus group discussions were conducted at three villages of Padma Pukur union in Satkhira District, from April to August in 2010. Vulnerability to disaster risk was assessed by using a short list of twenty predominant factors in terms of five dimensions, which reveals a strong relationship with sensitivity to climatic hazards. And the perception to hazard cyclone was measured by evaluating eight foremost characteristics that provide a robust insight and social view of affected residents to a physical event. The findings suggest that intensity, likelihood, speed of onset, familiarity and consequences of Cyclone Aila were regarded as significant hazard characteristics to the participants. This study explores that affected people had moderate ability to easily reduce the risks of hazard event. Findings further suggest that extreme weather, disaster-prone location, insufficient public services, high salinity, damage of biodiversity, loss of human lives and animals, shattering livelihood options, and damage of assets and infrastructures were considered as predominant factors of vulnerability. Finally, this study develops a disaster crunch model (DCM) based on the idea of Pressure and Release (PAR) model of vulnerability, which investigates root causes, dynamic pressures and unsafe conditions of vulnerability, and various elements at disaster risk.

Keywords

Bangladesh Coast Cyclone Aila Disaster Hazard Risk Vulnerability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I offer my gratitude to the participants of FGDs for sharing their experiences and insightful observations on pre- and post-cyclone periods. I also truly acknowledge to the field research team for hardworking during data collection and compilation. I thank to W. Neil. Adger, Marjolein B.A. van Asselt, Khondoker Mokaddem Hossain, Ortwin Renn, Terje Aven, F. van der Meulen, Martin Prowse, Lori Peek, Bishawjit Mallick, J. Timmons Roberts, Susmita Dasgupta, Bimal Kanti Paul who enriched this study by providing valuable articles and sage advices. I am also grateful to the editorial team of Natural Hazards particularly Thomas Glade and anonymous reviewers who provide thoughtful comments and suggestions to develop the manuscript in organized manner. I thank to Md. Amanat Ullah for his assistance to produce study map. Finally, this study is based on self-finance and merely independent effort of me.

References

  1. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16(3):268–281. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson-Berry L, King D (2005) Mitigation of the impact of tropical cyclones in Northern Australia through community capacity enhancement. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 10(3):367–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asian Development Bank (2010) ADB climate change programs: facilitating integrated solutions in Asia and the Pacific. Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/adb-climate-change-programs-brochure.pdf. Accessed July 2013
  4. Balica SF, Wright NG, van der Meulen F (2012) A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts. Nat Hazards 64(1):73–105. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0234-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee K (2012) Ailar provab: foshol hoy na, chingri chasho bondho, elaka charche Gaburabashi. Converted in: Impact of Aila: No crop production, stop shrimp cultivation, residents of Gabura is forsaking their locality. Prothom Alo. August 26, No-285Google Scholar
  6. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2012) Population and housing census 2011: socioeconomic and demographic report. Bangladesh bureau of statistics, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartlett S (2008) The implications of climate change for children in lower-income countries. Child Youth Environ 18(1):71–98Google Scholar
  8. Birkmann J, Fernando N (2008) Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Disasters 32(1):82–105. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2007.01028.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birkmann J, Fernando N, Hettige S (2006) Measuring vulnerability in Sri Lanka at the local level. In: Birkmann J (ed) Measuring vulnerability to hazards: towards disaster resilient societies. United Nations University Press, New York, pp 329–356Google Scholar
  10. Brakenridge GR, Syvitski JPM, Overeem I, Higgins SA, Kettner AJ, Stewart-Moore JA, Westerhoff R (2012) Global mapping of storm surges and the assessment of coastal vulnerability. Nat Hazards 66(3):1295–1312. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0317-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brecht H, Dasgupta S, Laplante B, Murray S, Wheeler D (2012) Sea-level rise and storm surges: high stakes for a small number of developing countries. J Environ Dev 21(1):120–138. doi: 10.1177/1070496511433601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brody SD, Zahran S, Vedlitz A, Grover H (2008) Examining the relationship between physical vulnerability and public perception of global climate change in the United States. Environ Behav 40(1):72–95. doi: 10.1177/0013916506298800 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks N (2003) Vulnerability, risk and adaptation: a conceptual framework. Working Paper 38. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks N, Adger WN, Kelly PM (2005) The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Glob Environ Change 15(2):151–163. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown University Center for Environmental Studies (2010) Summary: Preliminary assessment of rhode island’s vulnerability to climate change and its options for adaptation action. Retrieved from http://envstudies.brown.edu/Summary-RIClimateChangeAdaptation.pdf
  16. Button GV, Peterson K (2009) Participatory action research: community partnership with social and physical scientists. In: Crate SA, Nuttal G (eds) Anthropology and climate change: from encounters to actions. Left Coast Press, Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  17. Chambers R (1989) Editorial introduction: vulnerability, coping and policy. IDS Bull 20(2):1–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.1989.mp20002001.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corbin J, Strauss A (2008) Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  19. Creswell JW (2003) Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  20. Creswell JW (2013) Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  21. Cruz RV, Harasawa H, Lal M, Wu S, Anokhin Y, Punsalmaa B, Honda Y, Jafari M, Li C, Ninh NH (2007) Asia (technical summary). In: Parry M, Canziani O, Palutikof J, van der Linden P, Hanson C (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Soc Sci Q 84:242–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dasgupta S, Huq M, Khan ZH, Ahmed MMZ, Mukherjee N, Khan MF, Kiran P (2010) Vulnerability of Bangladesh to cyclones in a changing climate: potential damages and adaptation costs. Policy Research Working Paper 5280. The World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. De Silva DAM, Yamao M (2007) Effects of the tsunami on fisheries and coastal livelihood: a case study of tsunami-ravaged southern Sri Lanka. Disasters 31(4):386–404. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2007.01015.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drori I, Yuchtman-Yaar E (2002) Environmental vulnerability in public perception and attitudes: the case of Israel’s urban centers. Soc Sci Q 83(1):53–63. doi: 10.1111/1540-6237.00070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dynes RR (1998) Coming to terms with community disaster. In: Quarantelli EL (ed) What is a disaster? Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Enarson E, Fordham M (2004) Lines that divide, ties that bind: race, class, and gender in women’s flood recovery in the U.S. and U.K. Aus J Emerg Manage 15(4):43–52Google Scholar
  28. Enarson E, Fothergill A, Peek L (2007) Gender and disaster: foundations and directions. In: Rodríguez H, Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (eds) Handbook of disaster research. Springer, NYGoogle Scholar
  29. Few R (2003) Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: Local responses to a global threat. Prog Dev Stud 3(1):43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fothergill A (2004) Heads above water: gender, class, and family in the Grand Forks flood. University of New York Press, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  31. Fothergill A, Peek L (2004) Poverty and disasters in the United States: a review of recent sociological findings. Nat Hazards 32:89–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fritz C (1961) Disasters. In: Merton RK, Nisbet RA (eds) Contemporary social problems. Harcourt, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Fritz C, Mathewson JH (1957) Convergence behavior in disasters: a problem in social control. National Academy of Sciences, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuchs S, Kuhlicke C, Meyer V (2011) Editorial for the special issue: vulnerability to natural hazards-the challenge of integration. Nat Hazards 58(2):609–619. doi: 10.1007/s11069-011-9825-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fukuyama F (2001) Social capital, civil society and development. Third World Q 22(1):7–20. doi: 10.1080/713701144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fussel HM (2007) Vulnerability: a generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Glob Environ Change 17(2):155–167. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.05.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Government of Bangladesh (GoB) (2008) Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh: damage, loss and needs assessment for disaster recovery and reconstruction. Government of Bangladesh, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  38. Granger K, Jones T, Leiba M, Scott G (1999) Community risk in Cairns: a multi-hazard risk assessment. Australian Geological Survey Organization, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  39. Habiba U, Shaw R, Takeuchi Y (2011) Socio-economic impact of droughts in Bangladesh. In: Shaw R, Huy N (eds) Droughts in Asian monsoon region: community, environment and disaster risk management, vol 5. Emerald Publication, United Kingdom, p 25–48 Google Scholar
  40. Habiba U, Shaw R, Takeuchi Y (2012) Farmer’s perception and adaptation practices to cope with drought: perspectives from Northwestern Bangladesh. Intl J Disaster Risk Reduct 1:72–84. doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2012.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haq MZ, Robbani M, Ali M, Hasan M, Hasan MM, Uddin MJ, Begum M, Jaime A, da Silva T, Pan XY, Karim MR (2012) Damage and management of cyclone Sidr-affected homestead tree plantations: a case study from Patuakhali, Bangladesh. Nat Hazards 64:1305–1322. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0299-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haque CE (1995) Climatic hazards warning process in Bangladesh: experiences of and lessons from the 1991 April cyclone. Environ Manage 19:719–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hossain SMM, Kolsteren P (2003) The 1998 flood in Bangladesh: is different targeting needed during emergencies and recovery to tackle malnutrition? Disasters 27(2):172–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. HSBC (2011) Climate investment update. HSBC Global Research, 13 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  45. Hufschmidt G (2011) A comparative analysis of several vulnerability concepts. Nat Hazards 58(2):621–643. doi: 10.1007/s11069-011-9823-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hutton D, Haque CE (2004) Human vulnerability, dislocation and resettlement: adaptation processes of river-bank erosion-induced displaces in Bangladesh. Disasters 28(1):41–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ikeda S (2006) An integrated risk analysis framework for emerging disaster risks: toward a better risk management of flood disaster in urban communities. In: Ikeda S, Fukuzono T, Sato T (eds) A better integrated management of disaster risks: toward resilient society to emerging disaster risks in mega-cities. Terra Scientific Publishing Company (TERRAPUB) and NIED, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  48. IPCC (2001) In: McCarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White KS (eds) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. Islam SN (2010) Char-lands erosion, livelihoods and cyclic displacement of people in Ganges-Padma River Basin in Bangladesh. Asia Pac J Rural Dev 20(1):151–174Google Scholar
  50. Islam MN (2012) Riverbank erosion induced migration by the Char-Dwellers in Bangladesh: towards a better strategy. Asian J Environ Disaster Manage 4(3):243–267. doi: 10.3850/S1793924012001435 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Johannessen A, Hann T (2013) Social learning towards a more adaptive paradigm? Reducing flood risk in Kristianstad municipality, Sweden. Glob Environ Change 23(1):372–381. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jonkman SN (2005) Global perspectives of loss of human life caused by floods. Nat Hazards 34:151–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kafle SK (2006) Rapid Disaster Risk Assessment of coastal communities: a case study of Mutiara Village, Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Paper Presented at International Conference on Environment and Disaster Management, Jakarta, Indonesia, December 5–8Google Scholar
  54. Kasperson RE, Dow K, Archer E, Caceres D, Downing T, Elmqvist T, Eriksen S, Folke C, Han G, Iyengar K, Vogel C, Wilson K, Ziervogel G (2005) Vulnerable peoples and places. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends, vol 1. Island Press, Washington, pp 143–164Google Scholar
  55. Kelly PM, Adger WN (2000) Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Clim Change 47(4):325–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khan AE, Ireson A, Kovats S, Mojumder SK, Khusru A, Rahman A, Vineis P (2011) Drinking water salinity and maternal health in coastal Bangladesh: implications of climate change. Environ Health Perspect 119(9):1328–1332. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kron W (2012) Coasts: the high-risk areas of the world. Nat Hazards 66(3):1363–1382. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0215-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lindell MK (1994) Perceived characteristics of environmental hazards. Intl J Mass Emerg Disasters 12(3):303–326Google Scholar
  59. Mahmud I (2012) Ekhono Jhukir Moddho Boshobas. Converted in: Still Living in Risk, Prothom Alo, May 25, No. 197, 1–2Google Scholar
  60. Mahmud T, Prowse M (2012) Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh: lessons for climate adaptation? Glob Environ Change 22(4):933–943. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mallick B, Vogt J (2009) Analysis of disaster vulnerability for sustainable coastal zone management: a case of cyclone Sidr 2007 in Bangladesh. In: Climate change: global risks, challenges and decisions, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6 (352029). doi: 10.1088/1755-1307/6/5/352029
  62. Mallick B, Vogt J (2012) Cyclone, coastal society and migration: empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Intl Dev Plan Rev 34(3):217–240. doi: 10.3828/idpr.2012.16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mallick B, Vogt J (2013) Population displacement after cyclone and its consequences: empirical evidence from coastal Bangladesh. Nat Hazards, Published online on July 25. doi: 10.1007/s11069-013-0803-y 2013
  64. Mallick B, Rahaman KR, Vogt J (2011) Coastal livelihood and physical infrastructure in Bangladesh after cyclone Aila. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 16(6):629–648. doi: 10.1007/s11027-011-9285-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marsden PV (2005) The sociology of James S. Coleman. Annu Rev Sociol 31(1):1–24. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.31.041304.122209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Messias DKH, Barrington C, Lacy E (2012) Latino social network dynamics and the Hurricane Katrina disaster. Disasters 36(1):101–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01243.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mileti DS, Drabek TE, Haas JE (1975) Human systems in extreme environments: a sociological perspective. Research Monograph-2, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  68. Mosley LM, Sharp DS, Singh S (2004) Effects of a tropical cyclone on the drinking-water quality of a remote Pacific Island. Disasters 28(4):405–417. doi: 10.1111/j.0361-3666.2004.00266.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nakagawa Y, Shaw R (2004) Social capital: a missing link to disaster recovery. Intl J Mass Emerg Disasters 22(1):5–34Google Scholar
  70. Nel P, Righarts M (2008) Natural disasters and the risk of violent civil conflict. Intl Stud Q 52:159–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Norris FH, Friedman MJ, Watson PJ, Byrne CM, Diaz E, Kaniasty K (2002) 60,000 Disaster victims speak: part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981–2001. Psychiatry 65(3):207–239Google Scholar
  72. Norris FH, Sherrieb K, Galea S (2010) Prevalence and consequences of disaster-related illness and injury from Hurricane Ike. Rehab Psychol 55(3):221–230. doi: 10.1037/a0020195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Brien G, O’Keefe P, Rose J, Wisner B (2006) Climate change and disaster management. Disasters 30(1):64–80. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2006.00307.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paul BK (2009) Why relatively fewer people died? The case of Bangladesh’s Cyclone Sidr. Nat Hazards 50(2):289–304. doi: 10.1007/s11069-008-9340-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Paul BK (2010) Human injuries caused by Bangladesh’s cyclone Sidr: an empirical study. Nat Hazards 54(2):483–495. doi: 10.1007/s11069-009-9480-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Paul SK, Routray JK (2010) Flood proneness and coping strategies: the experiences of two villages in Bangladesh. Disasters 34(2):489–508. doi: 10.1111/j.0361-3666.2009.01139.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Peacock WG, Morrow BH, Gladwin H (1997) Hurricane Andrew: ethnicity, gender, and the sociology of disasters. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Peek L (2008) Children and disasters: understanding vulnerability, developing capacities, and promoting resilience—an introduction. Child Youth Environ 18(1):1–29Google Scholar
  79. Peek L, Fothergill A (2008) Displacement, gender, and the challenges of parenting after Hurricane Katrina. Natl Women’s Stud As J 20:69–105Google Scholar
  80. Peek L, Stough LM (2010) Children with disabilities in the context of disaster: a social vulnerability perspective. Child Dev 81(4):1260–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peek L, Morrissey B, Marlatt H (2011) Disaster hits home: a model of displaced family adjustment after hurricane Katrina. J Family Issues 32(10):1371–1396. doi: 10.1177/0192513X11412496 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pelling M (2003) The vulnerability of cities: natural disasters and social resilience. Earthscan Pub. Ltd., UKGoogle Scholar
  83. Penning-Rowsell E, Sultana P, Thompson P (2011) CS4: population movement in response to climate-related hazards in Bangladesh: the ‘last resort’. In: Migration and global environmental change, department for business innovation and skills, flood hazard research centre, Middlesex University, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Penrose A, Takaki M (2006) Children’s rights in emergencies and disasters. The Lancet 367:698–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quarantelli EL, Dynes RR (1976) Community conflict: its absence and its presence in natural disasters. Mass Emerg 1:139–152Google Scholar
  86. Raymond CM, Robinson GM (2013) Factors affecting rural landholders’ adaptation to climate change: Insights from formal institutions and communities of practice. Glob Environ Change 23(1):103–114. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Roberts JT (2007) Globalizing Environmental Justice. In: Sandler R, Pezzullo PC (eds) Environmental justice and environmentalism: the social justice challenge to the environmental movement. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  88. Roberts JT (2009) The international dimension of climate justice and the need for international adaptation funding. Environ Justice 2(4): xxxx. doi: 10.1089/env.2009.0029
  89. Roberts JT, Parks BC (2007) A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequality, North-South Politics, and Climate Policy. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  90. Safi AS, Smith WJ Jr, Liu Z (2012) Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception. Risk Anal 32(6):1041–1059. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01836.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saha CK (2013) Climate impact undermining food security. The Daily Star. Retrieved from http://archive.thedailystar.net/beta2/news/climate-impact-undermining-food-security/. Accessed Dec 2013
  92. Seal L, Baten MA (2012) Salinity intrusion in interior coast: a new challenge to agriculture in south central part of Bangladesh. Unnayan Onneshan-The InnovatorsGoogle Scholar
  93. Shamsuddoha M, Chowdhury RK (2007) Climate change impact and disaster vulnerabilities in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. COAST Trust, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  94. Shultz JM, Russell J, Espinel Z (2005) Epidemiology of tropical cyclones: the dynamics of disaster, disease, and development. Epi Rev 27(1):21–35. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxi011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sorensen JH, White GF (1980) Natural hazards: a cross cultural perspective. In: Attman I, Rapoport A, Wohlwill JF (eds) Human behavior and environment: advances in theory and research. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Tatham P, Oloruntoba R, Spens K (2012) Cyclone preparedness and response: an analysis of lessons identified using an adapted military planning framework. Disasters 36(1):54–82. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.2011.01249.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. The World Bank (2012) Turn down the heat: why a 4 °C warmer world must be avoided. A report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics. WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  98. Tierney K (2006) Hurricane Katrina: catastrophic impacts and alarming lessons. In: Conference paper series prepared for Berkeley symposium on Real Estate, Catastrophic Risk, and Public Policy March 23, pp 1–28Google Scholar
  99. Tierney K, Bevc C, Kuligowski E (2006) Metaphors matter: disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in hurricane Katrina. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 604:57–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tobin-Gurley J, Peek L, Loomis J (2010) Displaced single mothers in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: resource needs and resource acquisition. Intl J Mass Emerg Disasters 28(2):170–206Google Scholar
  101. Toronto Star (2008) Asian bloc to handle Burma aid. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2008/05/19/asian_bloc_to_handle_burma_aid.html. Accessed Sept 2013
  102. Turner RH (1983) Waiting for disaster: changing reactions to earthquake forecasts in Southern California. Intl J Mass Emerg Disasters 1(2):307–334Google Scholar
  103. Turner BL, Kasperson RE, Matson PA, McCarthy JJ, Corell RW, Christensen L, Eckley N, Kasperson JX, Luers A, Martello ML, Polsky C, Pulsipher A, Schiller A (2003) A framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(14):8074–8079. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1231335100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. UN (2009) Post-Nargis joint assessment. Retrieved from http://www.aseansec.org/21765.pdf, Accessed 19 Sept 2013
  105. UN-Habitat (2010) Bangladesh—2007—Cyclone Sidr. Natural Disasters, Shelter Project 2009, B2Google Scholar
  106. UN-Habitat (2011) Cities and climate change: global report on human settlements 2011. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Earthscan Publication, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. UNISDR (2004) Living with risk: a global review of disaster reduction initiatives. UN Publications, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  108. Veland S, Howitt R, Dominey-Howes D, Thomalla F, Houston D (2013) Procedural vulnerability: understanding environmental change in a remote indigenous community. Glob Environ Change 23(1):314–326. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wamsler C, Brink E, Rentala O (2012) Climate change, adaptation, and formal education: the role of schooling for increasing societies’ adaptive capacities in El Salvador and Brazil. Ecol Soc 17(2):1–19. doi: 10.5751/ES-04645-170202 Google Scholar
  110. Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I (2004) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  111. Welle T, Birkmann J, Rhyner J, Witting M, Wolfertz J (2012) World risk index 2012: concept, updating and results. In: World Risk Report 2012. United Nations University-Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Alliance Development Works, The Nature ConservancyGoogle Scholar
  112. Yohe G, Strzepek K, Pau T, Yohe C (2003) Assessing vulnerability in the context of changing socioeconomic conditions: a study of Egypt. In: Smith JB, Klein RJT, Huq S (eds) Climate change, adaptive capacity and development. Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. Zahran S, Shelley TC, Peek L, Brody SD (2009) Natural disasters and social order: modeling crime outcomes in florida. Intl J Mass Emerg Disasters 27(1):26–52Google Scholar
  114. Zahran S, Peek L, Snodgrass JG, Weiler S, Hempel L (2013) Abnormal labor outcomes as a function of maternal exposure to a catastrophic hurricane event during pregnancy. Nat Hazards 66(1):61–76. doi: 10.1007/s11069-011-0065-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology, 2nd Floor (Dept. off.) and 3rd Floor (Personal off.), Social Science Building-IIJagannath UniversityDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations