Natural Hazards

, Volume 69, Issue 1, pp 631–654 | Cite as

Initiatives for earthquake disaster risk management in the Kathmandu Valley

  • Amod Mani Dixit
  • Ryuichi Yatabe
  • Ranjan Kumar Dahal
  • Netra Prakash Bhandary
Original Paper


Situated over the Himalayan tectonic zone, Kathmandu Valley as a lake in geological past has a long history of destructive earthquakes. In recent years, the earthquake risk of the valley has significantly increased due mainly to uncontrolled development, poor construction practices with no earthquake safety consideration, and lack of awareness among the general public and government authorities. Implementation of land use plan and building codes, strengthening of design and construction regulations, relocation of communities in risky areas, and conduction of public awareness programs are suitable means of earthquake disaster risk management practice. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is still lacking earthquake disaster risk management plans. So, this paper highlights some initiatives adopted by both governmental and nongovernmental organizations of Nepal to manage earthquake disaster risk in the Kathmandu Valley. It provides some comprehensive information on recent initiatives of earthquake disaster risk management in the valley and also highlights the outcomes and challenges.


Himalaya Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk management Hazard management 



This paper is an outcome of the last 20 years of work experience in the field of earthquake risk management in the Kathmandu Valley, and it is largely based on the work done by National Society for Earthquake Technology Nepal (NSET, Nepal). All research staffs of NSET are sincerely acknowledged for their technical support during the preparation of this paper. Also, the comments provided by three anonymous reviewers have greatly enhanced the quality of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amod Mani Dixit
    • 1
  • Ryuichi Yatabe
    • 2
  • Ranjan Kumar Dahal
    • 3
  • Netra Prakash Bhandary
    • 2
  1. 1.National Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET)KathmanduNepal
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Science and EngineeringEhime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan
  3. 3.Department of GeologyTribhvuan UniversityKathmanduNepal

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