Natural Hazards

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 355–373

Critical determinant factors (CDFs) for developing concentrated rural settlement in post-disaster reconstruction: a China study

Original Paper

Abstract

Housing reconstruction is always the top priority issue in post-disaster reconstruction of rural areas in developing countries. However, the traditional reconstruction approaches, including reconstruction in situ, and resettlement are not sustainable enough for post-disaster reconstruction. Against the dispersion pattern of settlement, this study argues that developing concentrated rural settlement is able to increase the resilience of rural villages and to provide a basis for sustainable development post-disaster. Little study has reported developing concentrated rural settlement in post-disaster reconstruction until the reconstruction post 5.12 Sichuan Earthquake. Yet, there is still an unclear understanding of the factors taken into account when developing concentrated rural settlement in post-disaster reconstruction. This study aims to explore the critical determinant factors to be considered for developing concentrated rural settlement in post-disaster reconstruction with particular reference to the reconstruction post of 5.12 Sichuan Earthquake in China. Through content analysis, a preliminary list of determinant factors was firstly identified. Interviews with the local government officers, planners, and rural victims were conducted to collect opinions on the critical factors. It was found that governmental guidance, victims’ willingness, and economic development condition are three critical dimensions. The findings from this research can help understand the preconditions for developing concentrated rural settlement in post-disaster reconstruction and promote this approach in future.

Keywords

Concentrated rural settlement Post-disaster reconstruction Critical determinant factors (CDFs) 5.12 Sichuan Earthquake China 

References

  1. Ahmed YA (2009) Settlements pattern and functional distribution in an emerging communities: a case of a local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Soc Sci 4(3):256–263Google Scholar
  2. Alaci DSA (2010) Regulating urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa through cluster settlements: lessons for urban managers in Ethiopia. Theor Empir Res Urban Manag 5(14):20–34Google Scholar
  3. Alarslan E (2008) Arising risks in urban settlements: how can urban settlements be made disaster-resilient in light of increasingly devastating natural disasters over the last decade? Int J Urban Sci 12(1):49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allenby B, Fink J (2005) Toward inherently secure and resilient societies. Science 309(5737):1034–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Nammari FM, Lindell MK (2009) Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs. Disasters 33(3):457–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badri SA, Asgary A, Eftekhari AR, Levy J (2006) Post-disaster resettlement, development and change: a case study of the 1990 Manjil earthquake in Iran. Disasters 30(4):451–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birkmann J, Fernando N (2008) Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Disasters 32(1):82–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bull-Kamanga L, Diagne K, Lavell A et al (2003) From everyday hazards to disasters: the accumulation of risk in urban areas. Environ Urban 15(1):193–203Google Scholar
  9. Bunce M (1982) Rural Settlement in an Urban World. Croom Helm Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen XH, Zhang XL (2006) The approach and driving mechanism for developing concentrated rural settlement in the process of urbanization (in Chinese). Spec Zone Econ 1:150–151Google Scholar
  11. Chisholm M (2009) Rural settlement and land use, 2nd edn. Transaction Publishers, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  12. Coburn AW, Leslie JDL, Tabban A (1984) Reconstruction and resettlement 11 years later: a case study of Bingol Province, Eastern Turkey. In: Schupisser S, Studer J (eds) Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 49–58Google Scholar
  13. Communist Party of China News (2009) Thanks to Communist Party of China and thanks to the people (in Chinese). http://dangjian.people.com.cn/GB/78694/9294347.html. Accessed 15 November 2011
  14. Davidson CH, Johnson C, Lizarralde G, Dikmen N, Sliwinski A (2007) Truths and myths about community participation in post disaster housing projects. Habitat Int 31(1):100–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeJanvry A, Sadoulet E and Zhu N (2005) The role of non-farm incomes in reducing rural poverty and inequality in China. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7ts2z766. Accessed 8 Dec 2011
  16. Deng J (2010) Why does the government finance of Chengdu stop relying on land. http://www.infzm.com/content/53083. Accessed 2 Dec 2010
  17. Dikmen N (2006) Relocation or rebuilding in the same area: An important factor for decision making for post-disaster housing projects. http://www.grif.umontreal.ca/pages/DIKMEN_Nese.pdf. Accessed 16 Nov 2010
  18. Donner W, Rodriguez H (2008) Population composition, migration and inequality: the influence of demographic changes on disaster risk and vulnerability. Soc Forces 87(2):1089–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Drabenstott M (1995) Agricultural industrialization: implications for economic development and public policy. J Agric Appl Econ 27(1):13–20Google Scholar
  20. Dudwick N, Hull K, Katayama R, Shilpi F, Simler K (2011) From farm to firm: rural-urban transition in developing countries. The international bank for reconstruction and development, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunford M, Li L (2011) Earthquake reconstruction in Wenchuan: assessing the state overall plan and addressing the ‘forgotten phase’. Appl Geogr 31(3):998–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dye C (2008) Health and urban living. Sci 319(5864):766–769Google Scholar
  23. First Finance Daily (2011) Seven-year reforming roads for urban-rural coordinated development in Chengdu (in Chinese). http://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/20110318/01469551790.shtml. Accessed 3 Dec 2011
  24. Gkartzios M, Scott M (2009) Planning for rural housing in the republic of Ireland: from national spatial strategies to development plans. Eur Plan Stud 17(12):1751–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glaeser EL (1998) Are cities dying? J Econ Perspect 12(2):139–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Henderson JV (1997) Externalities and industrial development. J Urban Econ 42(3):449–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hewitt K (1997) Regions of risk: a geographical introduction to disasters. Longman, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  28. Jha AK, Barenstein JD, Phelps PM, Pittet D, Sena S (2010) Safer homes, stronger communities: a handbook for reconstructing after natural disasters. The World Bank, WahingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. Kronenberger J (1984) The German red cross in the earthquake zone of Turkey-regions of Van and Erzurum. In: Schupisser S, Studer J (eds) Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 29–42Google Scholar
  30. Krugman P (1991) Increasing returns and economic geography. J Polit Econ 99(3):483–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lamping H (1984) The use of indigenous sources for post-disaster housing-some geographical aspects. In: Schupisser S, Studer J (eds) Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 109–114Google Scholar
  32. Mandal RB (1989) Systems of rural settlements in developing countries. Concept Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  33. Ministry of Land and Resources of the People’s Republic of China (MLR) (2008) Suggestions on normalizing the practice of balancing urban construction land increase and rural construction land decrease (in Chinese). http://www.mlr.gov.cn/xwdt/zytz/200903/t20090302_115435.htm. Accessed 12 Dec 2010
  34. Muir R (2000) The new reading the landscape: fieldwork in landscape history (Landscape studies). University of Exeter Press, ExeterGoogle Scholar
  35. Mulwaree Shire Council (2003) Settlement strategy. http://www.goulburn.nsw.gov.au/files/1322/File/SettlementStrategy-November2003WebVersion.pdf. Accessed 04 Apr 2011
  36. O’Siochru E (2003) Rural housing. http://www.feasta.org/documents/landhousing/OCenvland.pdf Accessed 19 Dec 2010
  37. Ofori G (2004) Construction in Disaster Management. http://buildnet.csir.co.za/cdcproc/docs/3rd/ofori02.pdf. Accessed 20 Oct 2011
  38. Oliver-Smith A (1986) The martyred city: death and rebirth in the Aneds. The University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  39. Oliver-Smith A (1991) Successes and failures in post-disaster resettlement. Disasters 15(1):12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oliver-Smith A (1996) Anthropological research on hazards and disasters. Annu Rev Anthropol 25(1):303–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pearce L (2003) Disaster management and community planning, and public participation: how to achieve sustainable hazard mitigation. Nat Hazards 28(2/3):211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pelling M (2007) Learning from others: the scope and challenges for participatory disaster risk assessment. Disasters 31(4):373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peng Y, Shen LY, Zhang XL, Ochoa JJ (2011) Investigation on why the practice of rural residence land exchange is different under development driven condition and disaster induced condition. Third International Postgraduate Conference on Infrastructure and Environment, 11–12 July 2011, Hong Kong, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  44. Popkin BM (1999) Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Dev 27(11):1905–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Qadeer MA (2004) Urbanization by implosion. Habitat Int 28(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rattleff P (2007) The Reliability of Content Analysis of Computer Conference Communication. Comput Educ 49(2):230–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Razani R (1984) Earthquake disaster reconstruction experience in Iran. In: Schupisser S, Studer J (eds) Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 79–86Google Scholar
  48. Rural Issues Work Group (2002) Policy and implementation proposal for the rural area. http://www.metrocouncil.org/planning/rural_issues/RuralPolicyProposal.pdf. Accessed 16 Jan 2011
  49. Scott M (2005) Rural housing: politics, public policy and planning. In: Norris M, Redmond D (eds) Housing contemporary Ireland: policy, society and shelter. Institute of Public Administration, DublinGoogle Scholar
  50. Short B (1992) The English rural community: image and analysis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Spence R (2004) Risk and regulation: can improved government action reduce the impacts of natural disasters? Build Res Inf 32(5):391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Taylor JR (1988) Rural employment trends and the legacy of surplus labour, 1978–86. China Q 116:736–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Taylor AJW (1999) Towards the classification of disasters and victims. Traumatol 5(2):12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. The Swaziland Environment Action Plan (SEAP) (2011) Recommended policy and strategy framework. http://www.ecs.co.sz/seap/projects_seap_vol2_chapter1a.htm. Accessed 16 Jan 2011
  55. Turnock D (1991) The planning of rural settlement in Romania. Geogr J 157(3):251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ulubas A (1980) Post-earthquake housing in the Villages of Gediz. In: Proceedings of the seventh world conference on earthquake engineering: socio-economic aspects and studies of specific earthquakes, Istanbul, Turkey, pp 360–362Google Scholar
  57. UNDRO (1982) Shelter after disaster. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2008) Assessment on legal issues in earthquake stricken area. http://www.un.org.cn/public/resource/8874b5e1ecd33173622ccbcd05e92944.pdf. Accessed 3 Dec 2011
  59. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) (2004) Living with risk: a global review of disaster reduction initiatives. UNISDR, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  60. Wisner B, Piers B, Terry C et al (2004) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters, 2nd edn. Routledge, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  61. Wu JY, Lindell MK (2004) Housing reconstruction after two major earthquakes: the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the United States and the 1999 Chi–Chi earthquake in Taiwan. Disasters 28(1):63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Xu J, Yeh A, Wu FL (2009) Land commodification: new land development and politics in China since the late 1990s. Int J Urban Reg Res 33(4):890–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Young IJ (2004) Montserrat: post volcano reconstruction and rehabilitation-a case study. http://www.grif.umontreal.ca/pages/papers2004/Paper%20-%20Young%20I%20J.pdf. Accessed 12 Nov 2010
  64. Zhang QF (2008) Retreat from equality or advance towards efficiency? Land markets and inequality in rural Zhejiang. China Q 195:535–557Google Scholar
  65. Zhou GH, He YY, Tang CL et al (2011) Dynamic mechanism and present situation of rural settlements evolution in China (in Chinese). Acta Geogr Sin 66(4):515–524Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Peng
    • 1
  • Liyin Shen
    • 4
  • Cong Tan
    • 2
  • Dalu Tan
    • 3
  • Hao Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Building and Real EstateThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Continuing EducationJianghan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Architecture and EnvironmentSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Faculty of Construction Management and Real EstateThe Chongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations