Natural Hazards

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 2311–2330

Monitoring deformations on engineering structures in Kozlu Hard Coal Basin

  • Eray Can
  • Çetin Mekik
  • Şenol Kuşcu
  • Hakan Akçın
Original Paper

Abstract

Underground coal mining activities in Kozlu Hard Coal Basin have reached a level affecting ground layers inside the mining seams and the surface just above the mining operations, causing movements in vicinity of the basin. The movements emerge as collapsing in vertical direction and as sliding, curling and bending in horizontal direction and are termed mining subsidence since they exhibit themselves in ground layers and on earth surfaces in mining environments. These mining-induced movements cause damages and destructions on structures inside and on the surface of mining grounds, and the dimensions of these damages depend upon quality of structures and magnitude of movements. In order to contribute toward a solution to these problems and to mitigate the effects arising during and after mining activities, one should identify and investigate damage prone movements and determine the movement–time relationship. Therefore, it is immensely important to observe, investigate, and measure these movements in regions where mining activities take place. This study focuses on the surface movement-related deformations on the engineering structures in the basin such as Kozlu Seaport and some part of the Zonguldak-Kozlu Road. For this reason, subsidence monitoring points were established on the engineering structures in the basin in a geodetic network concept, and three periods of precise leveling and static GPS observations were conducted. Analyzing these two types of geodetic observations, active and residual subsidence effects were determined for both Kozlu Seaport and the Road nearby.

Keywords

Horizontal and vertical displacements Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin Kozlu coal production region Engineering structures Deformation 

References

  1. Akçın H (2010) A sustainable planning for impacts of mining under populated areas in Zonguldak Metroplitan Area. In: Proceedings of 17th coal congress of Turkey, 2-4 June 2010, Zonguldak, Turkey, pp 17–33 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  2. Akçın H, Degucci T, Kutoglu SH (2006) Monitoring mining induced subsidence using GPS and InSAR, TS 48—engineering surveys for construction works II, XXIII FIG congress, October 8–13. Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  3. Can E, Mekik C, Kuscu S, Akçın H (2011) Subsidence occurring in mining regions and a case study of Zonguldak-Kozlu Basin. Sci Res Essays 6(6):1317–1327Google Scholar
  4. Can E, Mekik C, Kuscu S (2012a) Determination of underground mining induced displacements using GPS observations in Zonguldak-Kozlu Hard Coal Basin. Int J Coal Geol 89:62–69 Google Scholar
  5. Can E, Kuşçu Ş, Kartal MK (2012b) Effects of mining subsidence on masonry buildings in Zonguldak hard coal region in Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 66(8):2503–2518Google Scholar
  6. Citiroglu HK, Baysal G (2011) Effects of geological and hydrological factors on the creation of flooding in Kozlu, Zonguldak, NW Turkey. Int J Phys Sci 6(6):1360–1373Google Scholar
  7. Deck O, Marwan HA, Françoise H (2003) Taking the soil–structure interaction into account in assessing the loading of a structure in a mining subsidence area. Eng Struct 25(4):435–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duzgun HSB (2005) Analysis of roof fall hazards and risk assessment for Zonguldak Coal Basin underground mines. Int J Coal Geol 64(1–2):104–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ekinci D (2005) Erosion analysis of Kozlu River basin with the GIS based a modified Rusle Method. IU Geogr Bull 13:109–119Google Scholar
  10. Gayarre FL, Alvarez-Fernández MI, González-Nicieza C, Álvarez-Vigil AE, Herrera García G (2010) Forensic analysis of buildings affected by mining subsidence. Eng Fail Anal 17(1):270–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karacan CO, Okandan E (2000) Fracture/cleat analysis of coals from Zonguldak Basin (Northwestern Turkey) Relative to the Potential of Coalbed Methane Production. Int J Coal Geol 44(2):101–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kratzsch H (1983) Mining subsidence engineering. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kusçu Ş (1991) Mining subsidence monitoring and the importance of subject in Zonguldak Coal Region. In: Turkey, international symposium on engineering surveys, FIG, 16–20 September, Sofia, Bulgaria, pp 225–236Google Scholar
  14. Kwinta A (2010) Assessment of outliers in deformation calculated from geodesy observation on the mining areas. J Min Sci 46(4):375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mancini F, Stecchi F, Zanni M, Gabbianelli G (2009) Monitoring ground subsidence induced by salt mining in the City of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Environ Geol 58:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mekik C, Can O (2010) An investigation on multipath errors in real time kinematic GPS method. Sci Res Essays 5(16):2186–2200Google Scholar
  17. Mekik C, Yıldırım O, Bakıcı S (2011) The Turkish RTK CORS network (TUSAGA-Aktif) infrastructure. Sci Res Essays 6(19):3986–3999Google Scholar
  18. National Coal Board (NCB) (1975) Subsidence engineers, handbook. National Coal Board, London, p 111Google Scholar
  19. Perski Z and Jura D (2003) Identification and measurement of mining subsidence with SAR interferometry potentials and limitations. In: Proceedings, 11th FIG symposium on deformation measurements, Santorini, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  20. Saeidi A, Deck O, Verdel T (2009) Development of building vulnerability functions in subsidence regions from empirical methods. Eng Struct 31(10):2275–2286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Song J, Han C, Li P, Zhang J, Liu D, Jiang M, Zheng L, Zhang J, Song J (2012) Quantitative prediction of mining subsidence and its impact on the environment. Int J Min Sci Technol 22(1):69–73Google Scholar
  22. Turer D, Nefeslioglu HA, Zorlu K, Gokceoglu C (2008) Assessment of geo-environmental problems of the Zonguldak Province (NW Turkey). Environ Geol 55(5):1001–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. URL 1 (2011) Kozlu Municipality web page. http://kozlu.bel.tr/faaliyet_raporu.htm. (In Turkish)
  24. URL 2 (2011) Turkish hard coal enterprise (TTK) web page. http://www.taskomuru.gov.tr/file/Is_Zekasi_Raporlari/Muessese_Bazinda_Yillik_Uretimler. mht (In Turkish)
  25. Wang C, Zhang H, Shan X, Ma J, Liu Z, Chen S, Lu G, Tang Y, Guo Z (2004) Applying SAR interferometry for ground deformation detection in China. Photogrammc Eng Remote Sens 70(10):1157–1165Google Scholar
  26. Wang, X.-F., Wang, Y.-J., Huan, T., 2008. Extracting mining subsidence land from remote sensing images based on domain knowledge. J China Univ Min Technol 18(2):168–171,181Google Scholar
  27. Wu X, Jiang X-W, Chen Y-F, Tian H, Xu N-X (2009) The influences of mining subsidence on the ecological environment and public infrastructure: a case study at the Haolaigou iron ore mine in Baotou, China. Env Earth Sci 59(4):803–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eray Can
    • 1
  • Çetin Mekik
    • 1
  • Şenol Kuşcu
    • 1
  • Hakan Akçın
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geodesy and Photogrammetry Engineering, Engineering FacultyBulent Ecevit UniversityZonguldakTurkey

Personalised recommendations