Monitoring deformations on engineering structures in Kozlu Hard Coal Basin
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- Can, E., Mekik, Ç., Kuşcu, Ş. et al. Nat Hazards (2013) 65: 2311. doi:10.1007/s11069-012-0477-x
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Underground coal mining activities in Kozlu Hard Coal Basin have reached a level affecting ground layers inside the mining seams and the surface just above the mining operations, causing movements in vicinity of the basin. The movements emerge as collapsing in vertical direction and as sliding, curling and bending in horizontal direction and are termed mining subsidence since they exhibit themselves in ground layers and on earth surfaces in mining environments. These mining-induced movements cause damages and destructions on structures inside and on the surface of mining grounds, and the dimensions of these damages depend upon quality of structures and magnitude of movements. In order to contribute toward a solution to these problems and to mitigate the effects arising during and after mining activities, one should identify and investigate damage prone movements and determine the movement–time relationship. Therefore, it is immensely important to observe, investigate, and measure these movements in regions where mining activities take place. This study focuses on the surface movement-related deformations on the engineering structures in the basin such as Kozlu Seaport and some part of the Zonguldak-Kozlu Road. For this reason, subsidence monitoring points were established on the engineering structures in the basin in a geodetic network concept, and three periods of precise leveling and static GPS observations were conducted. Analyzing these two types of geodetic observations, active and residual subsidence effects were determined for both Kozlu Seaport and the Road nearby.