Debris dispersal modeling for the great Sumatra Tsunamis on Banda Aceh and surrounding waters
The Great Sumatra Tsunami on 26 December 2004 generated large amounts of debris and waste throughout the affected coastal region in the Indian Ocean. In Banda Aceh—Indonesia, the tsunami flows were observed carrying a thick muddy sludge that mixed with all kinds of debris from the destroyed buildings, bridges and culverts, vehicles, fallen trees, and other flotsam. This waste and debris was mostly deposited inland, but traveled both onshore and offshore. Numerical dispersal modeling is carried out to simulate the transport of debris and waste produced by the tsunamis during the event. The model solves the Lagrangian form of the transport/dispersion equations using novel particle tracking techniques. Model results show that understanding the pathway and distribution of the suspended materials and flotsam caused by tsunamis is important for a proper hazards mitigation plan and waste management action, and to minimize serious long-term adverse environmental and natural resources consequences.
KeywordsTsunami Banda Aceh Debris and waste Dispersal model
The authors wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for a critical review and valuable inputs and comments that improved the manuscript considerably. The numerical model research work had been funded through NZIDRS, New Zealand and the fieldwork funded partly by Tsunami Research Foundation—Indonesia, USGS—NOAA on ITST 1-2. Thanks to Dr. Umitsu for permission to utilize the material for Figs. 1 and 13c, Drs. Rahman Hidayat, Dinar C Istiyanto, Widjo Kongko, Lukianto and all ITST Sumatra 2004 team for providing the fieldwork data. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Terry Healy.
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