Natural Hazards

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 1451–1470 | Cite as

Performance of nested WRF model in typhoon simulations over West Pacific and South China Sea

  • Jayaraman Potty
  • S. M. Oo
  • P. V. S. Raju
  • U. C. Mohanty
Original Paper


Forecasting skill of weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in simulating typhoons over the West Pacific and South China Sea with different trajectories has been studied in terms of track direction and intensity. Four distinct types of typhoons are chosen for this study in such a way that one of them turns toward left during its motion and had landfall, while the second took a right turn before landfall. The third typhoon followed almost a straight line path during its course of motion, while the fourth typhoon tracked toward the coast and just before landfall, ceased its motion and travelled in reverse direction. WRF model has been nested in one way with a coarse resolution of 9 km and a fine resolution of 3 km for this study, and the experiments are performed with National Center for Environmental Prediction-Global Forecasting System (NCEP-GFS) analyses and forecast fields. The model has been integrated up to 96 h and the simulation results are compared with observed and analyzed fields. The results show that the WRF model could satisfactorily simulate the typhoons in terms of time and location of landfall, mean sea-level pressure, maximum wind speed, etc. Results also show that the sensitivity of model resolution is less in predicting the track, while the fine-resolution model component predicted slightly better in terms of central pressure drop and maximum wind. In the case of typhoon motion speed, the coarse-resolution component of the model predicted the landfall time ahead of the actual, whereas the finer one produced either very close to the best track or lagging little behind the best track though the difference in forecast between the model components is minimal. The general tendency of track error forecast is that it increases almost linearly up to 48 h of model simulations and then it diverges quickly. The results also show that the salient features of typhoons such as warm central core, radial increase of wind speed, etc. are simulated well by both the coarse and fine domains of the WRF model.


Typhoons West Pacific Ocean WRF nested model 



The initial and boundary conditions for this study are taken from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and the verification data for the experiments are drawn from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). The ARW core of the WRF model is downloaded from the NCAR web site. We also extend our acknowledgements to Mr. A. R. Subbiah for his encouragements and support for this study. The financial support for this study was provided by the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jayaraman Potty
    • 1
  • S. M. Oo
    • 2
  • P. V. S. Raju
    • 1
  • U. C. Mohanty
    • 3
  1. 1.Regional Integrated Multi Hazard Early Warning System (RIMES)Klong Luang, BangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Meteorology and HydrologyNay Pyi TawMyanmar
  3. 3.Centre for Atmospheric SciencesIndian Institute of TechnologyHauz Khas, New DelhiIndia

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