Natural Hazards

, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 757–770 | Cite as

Assessment of flood hazard, vulnerability and risk of mid-eastern Dhaka using DEM and 1D hydrodynamic model

  • Muhammad MasoodEmail author
  • Kuniyoshi Takeuchi
Original Paper


Floods are regular feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. It is observed that about 60% of the eastern Dhaka regularly goes under water every year in monsoon due to lack of flood protection. Experience gathered from past devastating floods shows that, besides structural approach, non-structural approach such as flood hazard map and risk map is effective tools for reducing flood damages. In this paper, assessment of flood hazard by developing a flood hazard map for mid-eastern Dhaka (37.16 km2) was carried out by 1D hydrodynamic simulation on the basis of digital elevation model (DEM) data from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and the hydrologic field-observed data for 32 years (1972–2004). As the topography of the area has been considerably changed due to rapid land-filling by land developers which was observed in recent satellite image (DigitalGlobe image; Date of imagery: 7th March 2007), the acquired DEM data were modified to represent the current topography. The inundation simulation was conducted using hydrodynamic program HEC-RAS for flood of 100-year return period. The simulation has revealed that the maximum depth is 7.55 m at the southeastern part of that area and affected area is more than 50%. A flood hazard map was prepared according to the simulation result using the software ArcGIS. Finally, to assess the flood risk of that area, a risk map was prepared where risk was defined as the product of hazard (i.e., depth of inundation) and vulnerability (i.e., the exposure of people or assets to flood). These two maps should be helpful in raising awareness of inhabitants and in assigning priority for land development and for emergency preparedness including aid and relief operations in high-risk areas in the future.


Inundation simulation Flood hazard map Risk map HEC-RAS DEM 



Thanks to International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) and National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), Japan, for giving technical assistance and to Hydrology Division of Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) for providing necessary data for this study. Special thanks to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for funding this study.


  1. Al-Hussaini TM (2005) Multi-hazard disaster reduction in the coastal region of Bangladesh. International Symposium disaster Reduction on Coasts: Scientific-Sustainable-Holistic-Accessible, Monash University, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. Apel H, Aronica GT, Kreibich H, Thieken AH (2009) Flood risk analyses-how detailed do we need to be? Nat Hazard 49:79–98. doi: 10.1007/s11069-008-9277-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) (2005) Rivers of Bangladesh. Saukat Ali Md (ed), Surface Water Processing Branch, BWDB, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1st ednGoogle Scholar
  4. Banglapedia (2004) National encyclopedia of Bangladesh, 1st edn. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  5. Dewan AM, Nishigaki M (2004) Using Synthetic aperture radar with GIS for flood damage estimation. Proceedings of the 6th annual meeting of the Japan society for disaster information studies, Japan Society for Disaster Information Studies, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  6. Dewan AM, Nishigaki M, Komatsu M (2004) DEM based flood delineation in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. J Facul Environ Sci Technol 9(1):99–110Google Scholar
  7. Dewan AM, Yeboah KK, Nishigaki M (2005a) Flood mapping and damage evaluation in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh with remote sensing. Asian Profile 33(5):495–512Google Scholar
  8. Dewan AM, Yeboah KK, Nishigaki M (2005b) Assessing flood hazard in greater Dhaka, Bangladesh using SAR imageries with GIS. J Appl Sci 5(4):702–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dewan AM, Islam MM, Kumamoto T, Nishigaki M (2007) Evaluating flood hazard for land-use planning in greater Dhaka of Bangladesh using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Water Resour Manage 21:1601–1612. doi: 10.1007/s11269-006-9116-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ESRI (1999) ArcGIS Accessed 26 May 2010
  11. Halcrow Group Ltd (2006a) Briefing report on updating/upgrading the feasibility study of Dhaka integrated flood control cum eastern bypass road multipurpose projectGoogle Scholar
  12. Halcrow Group Ltd (2006b) Final report on updating/upgrading the feasibility study of Dhaka integrated flood control cum eastern bypass road multipurpose project, vol 3. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling studiesGoogle Scholar
  13. Hydrologic Engineering Center (2002) HEC-RAS (version 3.1.2), river analysis system, user’s manual. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Davis, CAGoogle Scholar
  14. Islam MM, Sado K (2000) Development of flood hazard maps of Bangladesh using NOAA-AVHRR images with GIS. Hydrol Sci J 45(3)Google Scholar
  15. Lehner B, Verdin K, Jarvis A (2006) HydroSHEDS technical documentation. World Wildlife Fund US, Washington, DC. Available at
  16. Mohit MA, Akhter S (2000) Delineation of flood damaged zones of Dhaka city based on the 1998 flood by using GIS. In: Ali MA, Seraj SM, Ahmed S (eds) Engineering concerns of flood. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, pp 303–318Google Scholar
  17. Osti R, Tanaka S, Tokioka T (2008) Flood hazard mapping in developing countries: problems and prospects. Disaster Prevent Manage 17(1):104–113. doi: 10.1108/09653560810855919 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Paul BK (2009) Why relatively fewer people died? The case of Bangladesh’s Cyclone Sidr. Nat Hazard 50:289–304. doi: 10.1007/s11069-008-9340-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sanders BF (2007) Evaluation of on-line DEMs for flood inundation modeling. Adv Water Resour 30:1831–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Werner MGF (2001) Impact of grid size in GIS based flood extent mapping using 1D flow model. Phys Chem Earth 26:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I (2004) At Risk, Natural hazard, people’s vulnerability and disasters, 2nd edn. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York, pp 49–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Design Circle–1Bangladesh Water Development BoardDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), PWRIIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations